Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Necremnus navonei parasite

Necremnus navonei Ribes, 2015 on Echium parasite Parasitoid in galls of Dialectica scalariella. host plants Boraginaceae, monophagous Echium vulgare. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Gebiola, Bernardo, Ribes & Gibson (2015a).

Cynoglossum creticum host plant species

synonym: Cynoglossum pictum organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia cynoglossi root collar borer Cerambycidae Coptosia ganglbaueri flower borer Cerambycidae Opsilia coerulescens flower vagrant Tingidae Dictyla nassata root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus exsoletus root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus sencieri stem borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones asperifoliarum unknown unknown Curculionidae Mogulones cingulatus root […]

genus Myosotis host plant genus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite root film Ceratocystidaceae Berkeleyomyces basicola root film Helicobasidiaceae Helicobasidium purpureum root film Ceratobasidiaceae Rhizoctonia solani systemic pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercosporella myosotidis leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria myosotidis systemic down Sclerotiniaceae Botrytis cinerea leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria protearum leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae […]

genus Anchusa host plant genus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite flower hidden Thripidae Thrips minutissimus systemic pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum root film Plectosphaerellaceae Verticillium dahliae leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria anchusae leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia anchusae leaf vagrant Scutelleridae Odontoscelis fuliginosa fruit vagrant Coreidae Coreus marginatus leaf vagrant Tingidae Dictyla rotundata leaf vagrant Miridae Orthonotus cylindricollis […]

genus Cynoglossum host plant genus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf pustule Albiginaceae Cystopus cynoglossi leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia cynoglossi leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia cynoglossi seeds vagrant Lygaeidae Graptopeltus lynceus leaf vagrant Tingidae Dictyla rotundata leaf vagrant Tingidae Dictyla triconula fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Aellopus atratus leaf vagrant Coreidae Enoplops scapha root vagrant Cydnidae Sehirus morio […]

Echium aculeatum host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf vagrant doubtful Miridae Conostethus venustus predator Anthocoridae Orius laevigatus leaf vagrant Tingidae Dictyla indigena stem borer Curculionidae Liparthrum canum root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus gomerensis leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Echium candicans host plant species

synonym: Echium fastuosum organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus isoplexidis flower borer Nitidulidae Afrogethes isoplexidis leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces asperifolii leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Echium gaditanum host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui leaf hidden Tortricidae Lobesia artemisiana leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia bipunctella flower borer Gelechiidae Ethmia terminella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella leaf miner Gelechiidae Aproaerema lerauti leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Echium giganteum host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia afer leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Echium nervosum host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite flower borer Nitidulidae Afrogethes isoplexidis leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Echium plantagineum host plant species

purple viper’s-bugloss, Paterson’s curse, Salvation Jane synonym: Echium violaceum organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Chondrostega escobesae leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora echii leaf vagrant Tingidae Dictyla indigena fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius cymoides leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Heterogaster urticae root vagrant Cydnidae Sehirus morio fruit vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta tuberculata fruit vagrant […]

Echium vulgare host plant species

viper’s-bugloss organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora tauricella leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora echii leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia echii leaf vagrant rarely Cydnidae Canthophorus dubius leaf vagrant Tingidae Kalama tricornis root vagrant Cydnidae Sehirus morio leaf vagrant Miridae Chlamydatus pullus leaf vagrant Miridae Europiella alpina leaf vagrant Miridae […]

genus Symphytum host plant genus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf leaf spot Ploettnerulaceae Pyrenopeziza brassicae leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta symphyti leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria symphyti leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia tecta leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia cylindroides leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia calcea leaf vagrant Miridae Dionconotus confluens leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Aecidium asperifolii […]

genus Borago host plant genus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite root gall Plasmodiophoraceae Ligniera hypogaea leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta boraginis predator Pteromalidae Miscogaster rufipes root vagrant Cydnidae Sehirus morio flower vagrant Scutelleridae Psacasta exanthematica leaf vagrant Miridae Calocoris nemoralis leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Aecidium asperifolii leaf vagrant Erebidae Ocnogyna baetica leaf vagrant Noctuidae Phlogophora meticulosa leaf […]

genus Echium host plant genus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Chondrostega escobesae leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora echii leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia echii leaf vagrant Scutelleridae Odontoscelis fuliginosa root vagrant Noctuidae Agrotis segetum leaf vagrant Noctuidae Mniotype usurpatrix leaf vagrant Noctuidae Cornutiplusia circumflexa leaf vagrant rarely Cydnidae Canthophorus dubius fruit vagrant Lygaeidae Nysius […]

Myosotis latifolia host plant species

synonym: Myosotis macrocalycina organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora myosotidis leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Anchusa strigosa host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite flower gall Tingidae Dictyla echii leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Aecidium asperifolii root collar borer Cerambycidae Coptosia ganglbaueri root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus dimidiatus root borer larva Chrysomelidae Longitarsus anchusae root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus fuscoaeneus root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus truncatellus leaf miner Crambidae Epascestria pustulalis leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica […]

Symphytum officinale host plant species

common comfrey synonym: Symphytum officinale subsp. bohemicum organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria symphyti leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia calcea leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia tecta leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia cylindroides predator Cecidomyiidae Lestodiplosis vorax leaf vagrant Noctuidae Ochropleura plecta leaf vagrant Noctuidae Atypha pulmonaris leaf vagrant […]

Perittia echiella parasite

Perittia echiella (de Joannis, 1902) Echium plantagineum, Spain; from Hering (1936b) mine Mine lower-surface, starting at a flat, iridescent egg shell, then an undulating epidermal corridor of about 5 cm, that abruptly widens into an elliptic blotch of ca. 5 cm length, which almost fills all space between midrib and leaf margin. The blotch has […]

Aproaerema lerauti parasite

Aproaerema lerauti Vives Moreno 2001 mine Lower-surface blotch, strongly resembling the mine of Dialectica scalariella. hostplants Boraginaceae, monophagous Echium gaditanum. phenology Larvae in February – April and September – November. distribution within Europe Iberian Peninsula (Fauna Europa, 2009). larva See Huertas Dionisio (2005a) for a detailed description of the larva. pupa With a dense cover […]

Myosotis host plants

Myosotis forget-me-not Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: Coleophora pennella 1b short gallery, ending upon the midrib: Mogulones euphorbiae 1c mine full depth; larva with chitinised head: Orthochaetes insignis & O. setiger 1d mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2 1e galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a corridor […]

Echium host plants

Echium viper’s bugloss (For a dichotomous table for galls on Echium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b mine full depth => 3 1c mine entirely or largely upper- or lower-surface => 7 1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva in a […]

Cynoglossum host plants

Cynoglossum hound’s-tongue Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva mines from a transportable case, making fleck mines => 2 1b larva mines from the inside => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva in a helicoidal case: Apterona helicoidella 2b larva in hoary, tubular case: Coleophora pennella 3a mine small, […]

Borago host plants

Borago borage (For a dichotomous table for galls on Borago by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine very small, of indefinite shape = > 2 1b mine not unusually small, of constant shape => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva: below/behind the anus a […]

Anchusa host plants

Anchusaalkanet, bugloss (For a dichotomous table for galls on Anchusa by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case: Coleophora pennella 1b corridor or blotch => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine lower- or upper-surface; larva a maggot => 3 […]

Symphytum host plants

Symphytum comfrey (For a dichotomous table for galls on Symphytum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case => 2 1b corridor or blotch mine; larva mines from the inside => 3 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a case squat, hoary, […]