Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Dialectica scalariella parasite

Dialectica scalariella (Zeller, 1850) bugloss slender Echium plantagineum; uit Hering (1927a) mine Mine upper-surface or, more often, lower-surface. At first a long, narrow, winding epidermal gallery with central, more or less deliquescent, reddish brown frass. The gallery abruptly widens into an elongate blotch that is epidermal at first but soon…

Echium host plants

…anal comb: Cnephasia asseclana 6b no anal comb present: Cnephasia stephensiana 7a larva with feet and a sclerotised head => 8 7b larva a maggot => 10 8a pupa naked in the mine, works itself halfway out of the mine prior to emergence: Dialectica scalariella 8b pupa remains in the…

Symphytum host plants

…working itself halfway out: Dialectica scalariella 8b pupa in a cocoon, remains within the mine: Perittia echiella 9a long corridor; frass in discrete grains; puparium within the mine, in a, generally lower-surface, pupal chamber; the front spiracula of the puparium penetrate the epidermis: Chromatomyia horticola 9bmine different => 10 10a…

Necremnus navonei parasite

Necremnus navonei Ribes, 2015 on Echium parasite Parasitoid in galls of Dialectica scalariella. host plants Boraginaceae, monophagous Echium vulgare. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Gebiola, Bernardo, Ribes & Gibson (2015a)….

Aproaerema lerauti parasite

Aproaerema lerauti Vives Moreno 2001 mine Lower-surface blotch, strongly resembling the mine of Dialectica scalariella. hostplants Boraginaceae, monophagous Echium gaditanum. phenology Larvae in February – April and September – November. distribution within Europe Iberian Peninsula (Fauna Europa, 2009). larva See Huertas Dionisio (2005a) for a detailed description of the larva….

Perittia echiella parasite

…and only in these cases the mine was visible from above. Upon emergence the pupa remains in the cocoon, contrary to Dialectica scalariella where, as in almost all Gracillariidae, the pupa works itself halfway out of the mine before the moth comes out. host plants Boraginaceae, oligophagous Echium decaisnei, lusitanicum,…

Anchusa host plants

…a very long and thin, epidermal, corrido: Dialectica scalariella 4b mine different => 5 5a blotch with a strong accumulation of frass in the, strongly inflated, central part; pupation within the mine => 6 5b mine small, without a definite shape, not strongly inflated, with hardly any frass; older larvae…

Borago host plants

…larva: below/behind the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana 2b anal comb absent: Cnephasia stephensiana 3a corridor from start to end: Chromatomyia horticola 3b eventually a large blotch => 2 4a initial corridor both very long and narrow; pupation within the mine; larva with recognisable head: Dialectica scalariella 4b initial…

Cynoglossum host plants

…from start to end; puparium in the mine; frass in well-spaced grains: Chromatomyia horticola 4b large, in the end brown, blotch without a preceding corridor => 5 4c narrow corridor, followed by a large blotch: Dialectica scalariella 5a larva solitary (always?): Agromyza myosotidis 5b larvae communal; common species: Agromyza abiens…

Myosotis host plants

…skeleton with 2 arms pointing backwards: Phytomyza myosotica 3b cephalic skeleton with 3 arms pointing backwards => 4 4a larva solitary: Agromyza myosotidis & A. pseudorufipes 4b larvae communal: Agromyza abiens Not included in the key: Coleophora pulmonariella; Cnephasia incertana; Dialectica scalariella; Orthochaetes setiger; Phytosciara halterata, Phytosciara macrotricha; Stephensia abbreviatella….

Echium plantagineum host plant species

…taurica leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora echii leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens leaf miner Elachistidae Perittia echiella leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica imperialella leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium echii leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cerinthes-agropyrina leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia isiacae leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae…

genus Echium host plant genus

…miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium echii leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cerinthes-agropyrina leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia isiacae leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia aegilopis leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Puccinia arnaudii leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae…

genus Symphytum host plant genus

…leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica imperialella leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara macrotricha leaf pustule Blastocladiales Physoderma speciosum leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium jaapianum leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia symphyti-bromorum leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsorella symphyti leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae…

Symphytum officinale host plant species

…pulmonariella leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica imperialella leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara macrotricha leaf pustule Blastocladiales Physoderma speciosum leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium jaapianum leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia symphyti-bromorum leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Melampsorella symphyti leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui leaf vagrant Aphididae Brachycaudus…

genus Borago host plant genus

…vagrant Tenuipalpidae Brevipalpus obovatus stem borer larva Curculionidae Mogulones asperifoliarum leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cynoglossi complex leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma boraginis leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma serotinum leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza myosotidis leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

genus Anchusa host plant genus

…miner Agromyzidae Agromyza myosotidis leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella leaf miner Crambidae Cynaeda dentalis leaf miner Crambidae Cynaeda gigantea leaf miner Crambidae Epascestria pustulalis leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia recondita leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia symphyti-bromorum leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia aegilopis leaf vagrant summer…

Myosotis latifolia host plant species

synonym: Myosotis macrocalycina organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora myosotidis leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Echium vulgare host plant species

…leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula taurica leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora echii leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria echii leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza medicaginis leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella leaf miner Crambidae Cynaeda dentalis leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia…

Echium nervosum host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite flower borer Nitidulidae Afrogethes isoplexidis leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Echium giganteum host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf scale Aleyrodidae Bemisia afer leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Echium gaditanum host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf vagrant Nymphalidae Vanessa cardui leaf hidden Tortricidae Lobesia artemisiana leaf hidden Gelechiidae Ethmia bipunctella flower borer Gelechiidae Ethmia terminella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella leaf miner Gelechiidae Aproaerema lerauti leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Echium candicans host plant species

synonym: Echium fastuosum organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus isoplexidis flower borer Nitidulidae Afrogethes isoplexidis leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces asperifolii leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Echium aculeatum host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf vagrant doubtful Miridae Conostethus venustus predator Anthocoridae Orius laevigatus leaf vagrant Tingidae Dictyla indigena stem borer Curculionidae Liparthrum canum root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus gomerensis leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

Cynoglossum creticum host plant species

…gall Curculionidae Pachycerus segnis leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces cynoglossi leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma cynoglossi leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cerinthes-agropyrina stem gall Curculionidae Rhabdorrhynchus seriegranosus leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi…

Anchusa strigosa host plant species

…group parasite flower gall Tingidae Dictyla echii leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Aecidium asperifolii root collar borer Cerambycidae Coptosia ganglbaueri root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus dimidiatus root borer larva Chrysomelidae Longitarsus anchusae root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus fuscoaeneus root vagrant Chrysomelidae Longitarsus truncatellus leaf miner Crambidae Epascestria pustulalis leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella

genus Myosotis host plant genus

…Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pulmonariella leaf miner Curculionidae Orthochaetes insignis leaf miner Elachistidae Stephensia abbreviatella leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara halterata leaf miner Sciaridae Phytosciara macrotricha leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium globosum leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium myosotidis leaf pustule…

genus Cynoglossum host plant genus

…leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma cynoglossi leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza abiens leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza myosotidis leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora pennella leaf miner Gracillariidae Dialectica scalariella leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia cerinthes-agropyrina leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia isiacae leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia aegilopis leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus cardui…