Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Leucoptera laburnella parasite

Leucoptera laburnella (Stainton, 1851) laburnum leaf-miner Genista tinctoria, Amstelveen, JP Thijssepark young mine Laburnum anagyroides, Amsterdam Laburnum anagyroides, IJzevoorde, coll. JHH Zwier; young mine mine The very first part of the mine is a densely contorted corridor of about 2 mm long, that quickly turns brown. It is followed by…

Leucoptera genistae parasite

Leucoptera genistae (Hering, 1933) Lepidoptera, Lyonetiidae mine Mines are undistinguishable from those of Leucoptera laburnella. hostplants Fabaceae, monophagous Genista anglica, germanica, tinctoria. phenology Larvae in August (Hering, 1957a); hibernation as pupa (Kasy, 1965a). distribution within Europe France, Italy, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria (Fauna Europaea, 2009). pupa Described by Patočka (2000a) and…

Leucoptera laburnella larva parasite

Leucoptera laburnella Genista anglica, Amstelveen, JP Thijssepark larva ventral head and pronotum, meso- and metanotum head and thorax ventral, prolegs proleg and terminal prolegs The larva illustrated above is fairly young. In full grown larvae the pigmentation is much less pronounced. The larva id described and discussed in much detail…

Laburnum host plants

…followed by a small blotch: Leucoptera laburnella (youth mine) 5c eventually a secondary blotch => 6 6a frass in broad concentric arches; larva with chitinised head; mine not positioned along the leaf margin: Leucoptera laburnella 6b frass not in arches; larva a maggot; mine along the leaf margin: Agromyza demeijereri…

Genista host plants

…coarse, “rasp-like” sculpture: Leucoptera laburnella 26b on this place fine ridges, running diagonally: Leucoptera genistae 27a larva: anterior tooth of mandible curved backwards: Agromyza pulla 27b anterior tooth at right angle (rare on this host plant): Agromyza johannae Not included in the key: Coleophora glaseri, pterosparti; Leucoptera andalusica; Phyllonorycter hispanica….

Cytisus host plants

…14a frass as a thick black mass in the centre of the mine; here eventually a cocoon is made and pupation takes place: Oryxolaemus flavifemoratus 14b frass more diffuse, in vague concentric arcs; pupation external: Leucoptera coronillae Not included in the key: Leucoptera cytisiphagella, heringella, laburnella, zanclaeella; Phyllonorycter cytisella, cytisifoliae,…

genus Cytisus host plant genus

…cytisiphagella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella leaf miner doubtful Lyonetiidae Leucoptera zanclaeella leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces fulgens leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces genistae leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces sarothamni leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Uromyces pallidus leaf pustule telia Pucciniales Dicheirinia canariensis stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon…

genus Genista host plant genus

…miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter telinella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter triflorella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera genistae leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces genistae leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Dicheirinia maderensis stem gall Agromyzidae Hexomyza sarothamni stem gall Apionidae Pirapion immune stem gall…

Hemiptarsenus wailesellae parasite

Hemiptarsenus wailesellae Nowicki, 1929 parasite Parasitoid in mines of Leucoptera laburnella; Parafomoria helianthemella. host plants polyphagous Genista tinctoria; Helianthemum nummularium. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Bouček (1959a)….

Astragalus host plants

Astragalus milk-vetch (For a dichotomous table for galls on Astragalus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva lives free, or in a silken tube or between spun leaves => 2 1b fleck mine (full depth, no frass, with a hole) => 5 1c corridor or blotch…

Lupinus host plants

…end a large blotch; larvae mine all their life => 3 2b mine small, very irregular; older larvae live free, among spun leaves => 4 3a mine contains no frass: Micrurapteryx kollariella 3b mine contains much frass: green at first, then black, in concentric arcs: Leucoptera laburnella 4a larva: pinacula…

Petteria host plants

Petteria Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine (almost) without frass: Micrurapteryx kollariella 1b mine with clear amounts of frass => 2 2a blotch, frass in concentric arcs: Leucoptera laburnella 2b gallery, frass in two rows along the sides: Phytomyza cytisi…

Genista tinctoria host plant species

…genistae leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces genistae stem gall Apionidae Pirapion immune stem gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia melanocera leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Brachycaudus helichrysi stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis genistae stem vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon pisum stem vagrant Aphididae Aphis craccivora…

genus Astragalus host plant genus

…leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella leaf pustule aecia telia Pucciniales Uromyces lapponicus leaf pustule aecia telia Pucciniales Uromyces phacae-frigidae leaf pustule aecia telia Pucciniales Uromyces splendens leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces jordianus leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces punctatus stem down Erysiphales Erysiphe caulicola…

Pnigalio soemius parasite

Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 839) parasite Ectoparasitoid in mines of Agromyza albitarsis; Chirosia ? grossicauda; Chromatomyia horticola, milii; Ectodedemia occultella; Kessleria saxifragae; Leucoptera laburnella, lotella; Phyllocnistis citrella; Rhopalomyia ptarmicae. host plants polyphagous Citrus sinensis; Populus. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Askew (1968a), Çikman, Beyarslan & Civelek (2006a), Papanikolaou, Kavallieratos, Kontodimas…

genus Laburnum host plant genus

…down Peronosporales Peronospora cytisi leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza demeijerei leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza cytisi leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora colutella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora trifariella leaf miner Gracillariidae Micrurapteryx kollariella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter staintoniella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces laburni stem gall Diaspididae Chionaspis…

genus Lupinus host plant genus

…pisi leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza congesta leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza xanthocera leaf miner doubtful Agromyzidae Agromyza demeijerei leaf miner rarely Agromyzidae Agromyza johannae leaf miner Drosophilidae Scaptomyza graminum leaf miner Gracillariidae Micrurapteryx kollariella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella leaf pustule…

genus Petteria host plant genus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite fruit borer Chrysomelidae Bruchidius villosus leaf miner rarely Agromyzidae Phytomyza cytisi leaf miner Gracillariidae Micrurapteryx kollariella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella flower gall Aphididae Aphis cytisorum…

Cirrospilus pictus parasite

Cirrospilus pictus (Nees, 1834) parasite Ectoparasitoid of Coleophora laricella; Leucoptera laburnella; Micrurapteryx sophorivora; Orchestes alni; Phyllocnistis citrella; Phyllonorycter hilarella. host plants polyphagous Citrus; Malus domestica; Robinia pseudoacacia. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Gençer & Seven (2005a), Gijswijt (1962a), lo Pinto, Salerno & Wajnberg (2005a), Noyes (2019a)….

Cytisus supinus host plant species

…borer larva Apionidae Exapion elongatulum fruit vagrant Coleophoridae Coleophora supinella leaf bud gall Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia cytisi leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe trifoliorum leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Wachtliella niebleri leaf miner rarely Agromyzidae Phytomyza cytisi leaf miner Apionidae Oryxolaemus flavifemoratus leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora trifariella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella leaf pustule aecia…

Elachertus inunctus parasite

Elachertus inunctus Nees, 1834 parasite Parasitoid in mines of Agonopterix heracliana; Leucoptera laburnella; ? Perittia obscurepunctella; Phyllonorycter blancardella, nicellii, nigrescentella. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Askew (1968a)….

Laburnum alpinum host plant species

…Agrilus cytisi stem borer Curculionidae Hylastinus fankhauseri fruit borer Chrysomelidae Bruchidius villosus leaf vagrant Psyllidae Livilla variegata fruit gall doubtful Cecidomyiidae Asphondylia bitensis flower gall Aphididae Aphis cytisorum leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe guarinonii leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora cytisi leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces laburni…

Laburnum anagyroides host plant species

…cytisi leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora trifariella leaf miner Gelechiidae Mirificarma cytisella leaf miner Gracillariidae Micrurapteryx kollariella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter staintoniella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces laburni stem gall Diaspididae Chionaspis salicis root gall Rhizobiales Rhizobium leguminosarum stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni stem vagrant…

Lupinus polyphyllus host plant species

…down Erysiphales Erysiphe intermedia leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe pisi var. pisi leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces lupinicola leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum albifrons leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces renovatus root gall Rhizobiales Rhizobium lupini…

Petteria ramentacea host plant species

synonym: Cytisus ramentaceus organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite fruit borer Chrysomelidae Bruchidius villosus leaf miner rarely Agromyzidae Phytomyza cytisi leaf miner Gracillariidae Micrurapteryx kollariella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella flower gall Aphididae Aphis cytisorum…

Cirrospilus vittatus parasite

Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 parasite Ectoparasitoid on Agromyza albitarsis, demeijerei; Anoplonyx destructor; Calycomyza humeralis; Chromatomyia horticola; Ectoedemia occultella; Leucoptera laburnella; Liriomyza; Mompha raschkiella; Phyllocnistis citrella; Phyllonorycter salicicolella; Phytomyza cytisi; Pristiphora laricis; Trifurcula eurema. host plants polyphagous Citrus; Cistus monspeliensis; Crataegus monogyna; Lotus cytisoides; Malus domestica; Populus. distribution within Europe PESI…

Laburnocytisus adamii host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera laburnella