Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phyllonorycter blancardella parasite

Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabricius, 1761) brown apple midget Malus sylvestris, België, prov. Namen, Viroinval, Nismes, RN Montagne-aux-Buis © Stéphane Claerebout same leaf, underside the identification has been confirmed by breeding. Malus domestica, Zweeloo, Pietersberg Malus domestica Pietersberg, opened mine mine Lower surface tentiform mine with a yellow-green epidermis that has a few folds. Pupation within the […]

Phyllonorycter blancardella pupa parasite

Phyllonorycter blancardella Malus, Southern Engeland, coll. Rob Edmonds; exuvium, with the mesothorax torn open; the small dark pit at the posterior margin of the mesothorax id diagnostic spinulation of an abdomen segment abd. segment 8 cremaster Pupa with rear margin of mesothorax with a pit; cremaster with two pairs of heavy spines, the outer pair […]

Phyllonorycter pyrifoliella parasite

Phyllonorycter pyrifoliella (Gerasimov, 1933) mine Lower-surface tentiform mine. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Malus. When Malus and Pyrus are cultivated together exceptionally a step-over to Pyrus may occur. phenology Three generations in southern Europe; hibernation as pupa. distribution within Europe Central and eastern Europe, but also Finland, Spain, and Bulgaria (Triberti, 2007a; Fauna Europaea, 2009). pupa […]

Achrysocharoides atys parasite

Achrysocharoides atys (Walker, 1839) parasite Parasitoid of Phyllonorycter blancardella, cydoniella, oxyacanthae. sorbi. host plants Rosaceae, oligophagous Crataegus monogyna; Malus domestica; Pyrus communis; Sorbus aucuparia. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). synonyms Enaysma atys. references Askew & Ruse (1974a), Bryan (1980a, 1983a), Vidal (1986a).

Pnigalio xerophilus parasite

Pnigalio xerophilus (Erdős, 1954) parasite Parasitoid in galls of Euura proxima; Phyllonorycter blancardella. host plants polyphagous Salix. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Efremova & Lengesova (2008a), Mihajlović (2018a.

Elachertus inunctus parasite

Elachertus inunctus Nees, 1834 parasite Ectoparasitoid in mines of Agonopterix heracliana; Leucoptera laburnella; ? Perittia obscurepunctella; Phyllonorycter blancardella, nicellii, nigrescentella; Tuta absoluta. host plants polyphagous Lycopersicon esculentum. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Askew (1968a), Vidal (1986a), Yarahmadi, Salehi & Lotfalizadeh (2016a).

Pnigalio longulus parasite

Pnigalio longulus (Zetterstedt, 1838) parasite Parasitoid in galls of ? Coleophora serratella; ? Nycteola revayana; Phyllonorycter blancardella, corylifoliella, froelichiella, hilarella, klemannella, quercifoliella, rajella, salictella; Prays oleae; Tischeria ekebladella. host plants polyphagous Olea europaea; Quercus. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Alissandrakis, Psirofonia, Kavallieratos, ao (2018a), Askew (1984a.

Cirrospilus pictus parasite

Cirrospilus pictus (Nees, 1834) parasite Ectoparasitoid of Coleophora laricella; Leucoptera laburnella; Micrurapteryx sophorivora; Orchestes alni; Phyllocnistis citrella; Phyllonorycter blancardella, hilarella, Pulmifoliella. host plants polyphagous Citrus; Malus domestica; Robinia pseudoacacia. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Gençer & Seven (2005a), Gijswijt (1962a), lo Pinto, Salerno & Wajnberg (2005a), Noyes (2019a), Vidal (1986a).

Minotetrastichus frontalis parasite

Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees, 1834) parasite Parasitoid of Cameraria ohridella, Coptotriche marginea; Diplolepis eglanteriae; Fenusa ulmi; Macrosaccus robiniella; Parectopa robiniella; Phyllocnistis citrella; Phyllonorycter blancardella, corylifoliella, heegeriella, issikii, lautella, maestingella, platani, roboris; Tischeria ekebladella. host plants polyphagous Aesculus hippocastanum; Citrus; Clinopodium nepeta; Crataegus monogyna; Malus domestica; Platanus acerifolia; Quercus petraea; Robinia pseudoacacia; Rubus ulmifolius; Tilia cordata; Ulmus […]

Laing JE, Heraty JM & Corrigan JE, 1986a.

Leaf burial by the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae), as a major factor in the population dynamics of Phyllonorycter blancardella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and its parasites. – Environmental Entomology 15(2):321-326.

Malus astracanica host plant species

synonym: Pyrus astracanica organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner rarely Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella malella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella

Malus baccata host plant species

synonym: Pyrus baccata organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf leaf spot Venturiales Venturia inaequalis leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix petiolella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera malifoliella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella desperatella leaf miner Nepticulidae […]

Malus coronaria host plant species

synonym: Pyrus, Sorbus, coronaria organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae Venturia pyrina fruit borer Drosophilidae Chymomyza amoena leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella

Malus domestica host plant species

apple synonym: Malus paradisiaca, sylvestris subp. mitis; Pirus, Pyrus, paradisiaca, malus According to the Euro+Med PlantBase (2019), the correct name of the common apple is: Malus pumila; this is not followed here. organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite unknown unknown Coccidae Didesmococcus unifasciatus root vagrant larva Curculionidae Otiorhynchus cribricollis leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae […]

Malus floribunda host plant species

japanese crab organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf scale Aleyrodidae Siphoninus phillyreae leaf scale Coccidae Pulvinaria hydrangeae leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera leucotricha leaf gall Aphididae Dysaphis devecta leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera malifoliella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella incognitella […]

Malus fusca host plant species

synonym: Pyrus rivularis organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf scale Aleyrodidae Siphoninus phillyreae leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella malella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis spiraecola

Malus ringo host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Gelechiidae Recurvaria nanella leaf miner Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella malella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculus schlechtendali

Malus sylvestris host plant species

crab apple synonym: Malus acerba, communis & subsp. sylvestris, kirghisorum; Pirus acerba, malus var. silvestris; Pyrus sylvestris organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf leaf spot Dothideomycetes incertae sedis Asteromella pomi stem pustule Didymellaceae Didymella macrostoma root film Xylariaceae Dematophora necatrix leaf vagrant Miridae Orthotylus tenellus leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Apodiphus integriceps leaf vagrant […]

genus Malus host plant genus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite unknown unknown Coccidae Didesmococcus unifasciatus root vagrant larva Curculionidae Otiorhynchus cribricollis fruit down Sclerotiniaceae Monilinia laxa leaf bud Camarosporiaceae Camarosporium karstenii leaf bud down Botryosphaeriaceae Diplodia griffonii stem kanker Botryosphaeriaceae Botryosphaeria quercuum leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Mycosphaerella pomi leaf leaf spot Drepanopezizaceae Diplocarpon mespili leaf leaf spot […]

Malus x robusta host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella

Malus host plants

Malus apple (For a dichotomous table for galls on Malus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b small blotch, eventually with a circular excision => 2 1c tentiform mine => 3 1d primary blotch without preceding corridor or excision => 9 1e corridor from start […]

Sorbus host plants

Sorbus mountain ash Incl. Aucuparia. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Sorbus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a small blotch mine, with an excision, not much smaller then the blotch itself: Incurvaria pectinea 1b primary blotch, without an excision => 2 1c tentiform mine => 8 1d corridor, abruptly widening […]

Amelanchier host plants

Amelanchier juneberry (For a dichotomous table for galls on Amelanchier by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b fleck mine => 2 1c blotch, without a trace of a preceding corridor => 4 1d corridor, may be widened at the end => 5 1d tentiform mine […]

Crataegus host plants

Crataegus hawthorn Incl. x Crataemespilus. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Crataegus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b round excisions, 3-4 mm diam.: Incurvaria masculella 1c tentiform mine, > 1 cm => 2 1d small, < 1 cm, blotch or corridor => 6 […]

August, 2016 news

New for the Benelux Liriomyza balcanica; Pegomya dulcamarae New for the Netherlands Agromyza dipsaci correction: galls on Bupleurum falcatum were not caused by Eryngiophaga hungarica but by: Planchonia arabidis. Unusual hostplant Phyllonorycter corylifoliella: Corylus avellana New pictures Acalyptris minimella; Aceria tenuis; Aequsomatus annulatus; Agromyza frontella, nana; Americina vittata; Andricus aries; Aphis nerii, ulmariae; Aploneura lentisci; Apteropeda […]

Cotoneaster host plants

Cotoneaster cotoneaster Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b tentiform mine, > 1 cm => 2 1c small (max. 1 cm) tentiform or blotch mine => 8 1d blotch, > 1 cm, without an initial corridor => 15 1e corridor, > 1 cm, may be widened towards then end => […]

Predators introduction

Predators birds Obviously large larvae, like those of mining sawflies, must be an attractive prey for insectivorous birds. This was testified by Heterarthrus nemoratus; this species was around 1920 inadvertently introduced from Europe into the United States, and built up immense populations in a relatively short time. Around 50% of the larvae were eaten then […]

Pnigalio pectinicornis parasite

Pnigalio pectinicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) parasite Parasitoid of Antispila treitschkiella; Coptotriche angusticollella, marginea; Cerodontha phragmitidis; Elachista humilis; Leucospilapteryx omissella; Metallus pumilus; Phyllocnistis citrella; Phyllonorycter anderidae, blancardella, comparella, ? coryli, corylifoliella, heegeriella, hilarella, ? junoniella, nicellii, ? quinqueguttella, roboris, salictella, schreberella, spinicolella, ulmifoliella; Prays oleae; Profenusa pygmaea; Tischeria ekebladella. host plants polyphagous Citrus; Olea europaea; Quercus petraea, […]

Sympiesis gordius parasite

Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839) /em>. parasite Parasitoïd of Acrocercops brongniardella; Lyonetia clerkella; Phyllonorycter acerifoliella, blancardella, cerasicolella, comparella, ? coryli, corylifoliella, froelichiella, geniculella, hilarella, issikii, kuhlweiniella, maestingella, oxyacanthae, platani, populifoliella, pyrifoliella, quercifoliella, rajella, roboris, scitulella. sorbi, strigulatella, trifasciella, ulmifoliella, Tischeria ekebladella. host plants polyphagous Acer; Alnus; Fagus sylvatica; Malus domestica; Platanus; Populus; Quercus cerris, petraea; Salix […]

Sympiesis sericeicornis parasite

Sympiesis sericeicornis (Nees, 1834) parasite Ectoparasitoid of. Aglais urticae, Apanteles; Caloptilia elongella; Cameraria ohridella; Epinotia sordidana; Fenusa dohrnii; Heterarthrus nemoratus; Lyonetia clerkella; Metallus pumilus; Metriochroa; Phyllocnistis labyrinthella; Phyllonorycter acerifoliella, agilella, alpina, blancardella, comparella, coryli, corylifoliella, cydoniella, dubitella, emberizaepeella, esperella, geniculella, heegeriella, hilarella, issikii, kuhlweiniella; ? lantanella, maestingella, mespilella, messaniella, nicellii, oxyacanthae, populifoliella, pyrifoliella, quercifoliella, rajella, […]

Drăghia I, 1982a.

Observations sur les espèces Phyllonorycter (Lithocolletis) cerasicolella H.S. et P. blancardella F., microlépidoptères mineurs nuisibles aux arbres fruitiers. – Travaux du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle “Grigore Antipa” 24: 179-184; 1 fold tab

Pyrus host plants

Pyrus pear Incl. x Sorbopyrus (For a dichotomous table for galls on Pyrus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b mine with an excision: Incurvaria pectinea 1c tentiform mine => 2 1d blotch, without a preceding corridor => 7 1e corridor from start to end […]

Mespilus host plants

Mespilus medlar The genus Mespilus currently is included in Crataegus. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Mespilus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a tentiform mine => 2 1b fleck mine => 4 1c corridor or blotch mine => 7 1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a […]

Prunus host plants

Prunus cherry incl. Amygdalus, Armeniaca, Cerasus, Padus, Persica. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Prunus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b mine with an excision => 2 1c tentiform mine => 3 1d blotch without preceding corridor => 11 1e corridor from start […]