Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Phyllonorycter blancardella parasite

Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabricius, 1761) brown apple midget Malus sylvestris, België, prov. Namen, Viroinval, Nismes, RN Montagne-aux-Buis © Stéphane Claerebout same leaf, underside the identification has been confirmed by breeding. Malus domestica, Zweeloo, Pietersberg Malus domestica Pietersberg, opened mine mine Lower surface tentiform mine with a yellow-green epidermis that has a…

Phyllonorycter pyrifoliella parasite

Phyllonorycter pyrifoliella (Gerasimov, 1933) mine Lower-surface tentiform mine. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Malus. When Malus and Pyrus are cultivated together exceptionally a step-over to Pyrus may occur. phenology Three generations in southern Europe; hibernation as pupa. distribution within Europe Central and eastern Europe, but also Finland, Spain, and Bulgaria (Triberti,…

Phyllonorycter blancardella pupa parasite

Phyllonorycter blancardella Malus, Southern Engeland, coll. Rob Edmonds; exuvium, with the mesothorax torn open; the small dark pit at the posterior margin of the mesothorax id diagnostic spinulation of an abdomen segment abd. segment 8 cremaster Pupa with rear margin of mesothorax with a pit; cremaster with two pairs of…

Prunus host plants

Phyllonorycter cavella 8b cremaster shorter than wide => 9 9a pupa: cremaster with two pairs of spines, the inner pair not much smaller than the outer pair: Phyllonorycter sorbi 9b inner pair disticntly smaller than the outer one => 10 10a pupa: rear margin of cremaster weakly concave; sides of…

Sorbus host plants

…larger, circular; frass in concentric circles: Leucoptera malifoliella 8a mine upper-surface => 9 8b mine lower-surface => 10 9a full-grown mines silvery-white, without black speckles: Phyllonorycter leucographella 9b full-grown mines dirty grey because of numerous black speckles: Phyllonorycter corylifoliella 10a fresh mine grey-brown, larvae later live free => 11 10b…

Crataegus host plants

…chiclanensis 33b pan-European species: Coleophora spinella (most common on Hawthorn), but see also C. prunifoliae and C serratella. Not included in the key: Coleophora adjectella (contradictions in the description), Coleophora coracipennella, Coleophora potentillael Liriomyza trifolii; Phyllonorycter blancardella (xenophagy?), Phyllonorycter macedonica (unsufficiently described); Phyllonorycter sorbi; Stigmella mespilicola (occurence on this host…

Cotoneaster host plants

…dirty white, with many blackish speckles: Phyllonorycter corylifoliella 4a lower epidermis yellow green, with conspicuous folds => 5 4b lower epidermis grey brown, wrinkled => 7 5a mountain species: Phyllonorycter deschkai 5b lowland species => 6 6a folds of the mine fine, rather weak: Phyllonorycter mespilella 6b folds strong, sharp:…

Pyrus host plants

…or silvery; positioned over a vein => 4 3b mine silvery, later orange-brown, between two veins: Callisto denticulella 4a fully developed mine silvery white, without black speckles: Phyllonorycter leucographella 4b fully developed mine dirty grey because of many black speckles on the upper epidermis: Phyllonorycter corylifoliella 5a mine epidermal, silvery,…

Malus host plants

…brown: Callisto denticulella 7b mine not epidermal; epidermis yellow-green => 8 8 “Phyllonorycter blancardella sensu lato”. Gregor & Patočka (2001a), and Patočka & Turčáni (2005a) present a key to the pupae of Ph. blancardella, cydoniella, gerasimovi, mespilella, and sorbi. It is pointless to reproduce that here, because Triberti (2007a) has…

Amelanchier host plants

…cydoniella 15b the bases of the inner pair partly overlap with the bases of the outer pair: Phyllonorycter blancardella 16a mine 14-16 mm long: Phyllonorycter deschkai 16b mine 20-32 mm long: Phyllonorycter mespilella Not included in the key: Callisto pfaffenzelleri; Caloptilia spec.; Coleophora trigeminella; Parornix anglicella, Parornix ornatella; Stigmella torminalis….

genus Malus host plant genus

…Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter cerasicolella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter corylifoliella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter gerasimowi leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter hostis leaf miner rarely Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter leucographella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter mespilella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter pyrifoliella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter sorbi leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria oehlmanniella leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria pectinea leaf…

Mespilus host plants

…the leaf margin: Phyllonorycter anceps, blancardella [voorkomen op deze waardplant zeer onzeker], mespilella, oxyacanthae 4a lobe case: Coleophora violacea 4b tubular leaf case (youth case, ca. 5 mm) => 5 4c composite leaf case (> 5 mm) => 6 5a rear end of case crooked like the handle of a…

Malus domestica host plant species

…siccifolia leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora spinella leaf miner Gelechiidae Recurvaria nanella leaf miner Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix petiolella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner rarely Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter cerasicolella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter corylifoliella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter gerasimowi leaf miner Gracillariidae…

Predators introduction

…leaves into their burrows, and devour them. For those miners that hibernate within their mines being pulled underground poses a severe threat. Laing ao (1986a) found that in years with a could spring, when Phyllonorycter blancardella emerges only late from its pupa, a considerable proportion of the pupae perishes below…

Malus sylvestris host plant species

…miner Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix petiolella leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix scoticella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter corylifoliella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter sorbi leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria oehlmanniella leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria pectinea leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella leaf miner Nepticulidae Bohemannia pulverosella leaf…

August, 2016 news

…pericarpiicola; Lasioptera eryngii; Liriomyza congesta, eupatorii; Macrolabis luceti; Mayetiola phalaris; Metriochroa latifoliella; Microbotryum tragopogonis-pratensis; Mycosphaerella ulmi; Myricomyia mediterranea; Pegomya betae; Phyllonorycter blancardella, endryella, lantanella; Planchonia arabidis; Pseudomonas savastanoi pv nerii, syringae pv. morsprunorum; Ramularia lamii, lysimachiae, variabilis; Rabdophaga clavifex, salicis; Resseliella betulicola; Rhopalomyia baccarum; Septoria convolvuli; Stigmella oxyacanthella, ulmivora; Taphrina…

Pnigalio pectinicornis parasite

Pnigalio pectinicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) parasite Parasitoid of Antispila treitschkiella; Coptotriche angusticollella, marginea; Cerodontha phragmitidis; Elachista humilis; Leucospilapteryx omissella; Metallus pumilus; Phyllocnistis citrella; Phyllonorycter anderidae, blancardella, comparella, ? coryli, corylifoliella, heegeriella, hilarella, ? junoniella, nicellii, ? quinqueguttella, roboris, salictella, schreberella, spinicolella, ulmifoliella; Prays oleae; Profenusa pygmaea; Tischeria ekebladella. host plants polyphagous…

Achrysocharoides atys parasite

Achrysocharoides atys (Walker, 1839) parasite Parasitoid of Phyllonorycter blancardella, cydoniella, oxyacanthae. sorbi. host plants Rosaceae, oligophagous Crataegus monogyna; Malus domestica; Pyrus communis; Sorbus aucuparia. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). synonyms Enaysma atys. references Askew & Ruse (1974a), Bryan (1980a, 1983a), Vidal (1986a)….

Pnigalio xerophilus parasite

Pnigalio xerophilus (Erdős, 1954) parasite Parasitoid in galls of Euura proxima; Phyllonorycter blancardella. host plants polyphagous Salix. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Efremova & Lengesova (2008a), Mihajlović (2018a….

Elachertus inunctus parasite

Elachertus inunctus Nees, 1834 parasite Ectoparasitoid in mines of Agonopterix heracliana; Leucoptera laburnella; ? Perittia obscurepunctella; Phyllonorycter blancardella, nicellii, nigrescentella; Tuta absoluta. host plants polyphagous Lycopersicon esculentum. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Askew (1968a), Vidal (1986a), Yarahmadi, Salehi & Lotfalizadeh (2016a)….

Sympiesis gordius parasite

Sympiesis gordius (Walker, 1839) /em>. parasite Parasitoïd of Acrocercops brongniardella; Lyonetia clerkella; Phyllonorycter acerifoliella, blancardella, cerasicolella, comparella, ? coryli, corylifoliella, froelichiella, geniculella, hilarella, issikii, kuhlweiniella, maestingella, oxyacanthae, platani, populifoliella, pyrifoliella, quercifoliella, rajella, roboris, scitulella. sorbi, strigulatella, trifasciella, ulmifoliella, Tischeria ekebladella. host plants polyphagous Acer; Alnus; Fagus sylvatica; Malus domestica; Platanus;…

Pnigalio longulus parasite

Pnigalio longulus (Zetterstedt, 1838) parasite Parasitoid in galls of ? Coleophora serratella; ? Nycteola revayana; Phyllonorycter blancardella, corylifoliella, froelichiella, hilarella, klemannella, quercifoliella, rajella, salictella; Prays oleae; Tischeria ekebladella. host plants polyphagous Olea europaea; Quercus. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Alissandrakis, Psirofonia, Kavallieratos, ao (2018a), Askew (1984a….

Malus baccata host plant species

synonym: Pyrus baccata organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf leaf spot Venturiales Venturia inaequalis leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix petiolella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera malifoliella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella leaf miner Nepticulidae…

Malus astracanica host plant species

synonym: Pyrus astracanica organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner rarely Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella malella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella…

Malus coronaria host plant species

synonym: Pyrus, Sorbus, coronaria organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf leaf spot Venturiaceae Venturia pyrina fruit borer Drosophilidae Chymomyza amoena leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella…

Malus floribunda host plant species

japanese crab organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf scale Aleyrodidae Siphoninus phillyreae leaf scale Coccidae Pulvinaria hydrangeae leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera leucotricha leaf gall Aphididae Dysaphis devecta leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Leucoptera malifoliella…

Malus fusca host plant species

synonym: Pyrus rivularis organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf scale Aleyrodidae Siphoninus phillyreae leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella malella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis…

Malus ringo host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Gelechiidae Recurvaria nanella leaf miner Gracillariidae Callisto denticulella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella malella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculus schlechtendali…

Malus x robusta host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter blancardella

Minotetrastichus frontalis parasite

Minotetrastichus frontalis (Nees, 1834) parasite Parasitoid of Cameraria ohridella, Coptotriche marginea; Diplolepis eglanteriae; Fenusa ulmi; Macrosaccus robiniella; Parectopa robiniella; Phyllocnistis citrella; Phyllonorycter blancardella, corylifoliella, heegeriella, issikii, lautella, maestingella, platani, roboris; Tischeria ekebladella. host plants polyphagous Aesculus hippocastanum; Citrus; Clinopodium nepeta; Crataegus monogyna; Malus domestica; Platanus acerifolia; Quercus petraea; Robinia pseudoacacia;…

Sympiesis sericeicornis parasite

Sympiesis sericeicornis (Nees, 1834) parasite Ectoparasitoid of. Aglais urticae, Apanteles; Caloptilia elongella; Cameraria ohridella; Epinotia sordidana; Fenusa dohrnii; Heterarthrus nemoratus; Lyonetia clerkella; Metallus pumilus; Metriochroa; Phyllocnistis labyrinthella; Phyllonorycter acerifoliella, agilella, alpina, blancardella, comparella, coryli, corylifoliella, cydoniella, dubitella, emberizaepeella, esperella, geniculella, heegeriella, hilarella, issikii, kuhlweiniella; ? lantanella, maestingella, mespilella, messaniella, nicellii,…

Cirrospilus pictus parasite

Cirrospilus pictus (Nees, 1834) parasite Ectoparasitoid of Coleophora laricella; Leucoptera laburnella; Micrurapteryx sophorivora; Orchestes alni; Phyllocnistis citrella; Phyllonorycter blancardella, hilarella, Pulmifoliella. host plants polyphagous Citrus; Malus domestica; Robinia pseudoacacia. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Gençer & Seven (2005a), Gijswijt (1962a), lo Pinto, Salerno & Wajnberg (2005a), Noyes (2019a), Vidal…