Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

August, 2020 news

new pictures Cercospora depazeoides; Coleosporium campanulae; Copium teucrii; Diplocarpon mespili; Spurgia euphorbiae; Stigmella filipendulae.

July, 2020 news

new pictures Aceria acerismonspessulani, fraxinivora, marginemvolvens, sanguisorbae; Amblyptilia acanthadactyla; Buckleria paludum; Byctiscus betulae; Cydia pomonella; Cerodontha iridis; Dasineura miki, similis; Eriophyes prunianus; Erysiphe sedi; Euura tibialis; Macrolabis incolens; Nematus lucidus; Phloeospora robiniae; Septoria hydrocotyles; Wheeleria spilodactylus.

Why are gall-mite galls so problematic? Frequently Asked Question

The identification of galls that are indeced by gall mies often leads to an unsatisfactory result. Sometimes the descriptions are partly incorrect, or overlapping, the nomenclature my be confusing and incongruous with other publications. The causers of these galls measure 0.2 mm or less, are hardly visible with the naked eye. Identification is possible only […]

June, 2020 news

new pictures Aceria erinea, tristriata; Aculus convolvuli; Agromyza megalopsis; Antispila metallella; Apoderus coryli; Attelabus nitens; Biorhiza pallida; Byctiscus betulae; Cladius brullei, grandis, ulmi; Contarinia sorbi; Curculio villosus; Dasineura acrophila, rosae; Ditylenchus dipsaci; Dysaphis tulipae; Eulecanium tiliae; Euura anglica, melanocephala; Galeruca tanaceti; Incurvaria pectinea; Josephiella microcarpae; Macrodiplosis pustularis; Metzneria lappella; Monochroa conspersella (pupa); Monodiplosis liebeli; Nematus […]

May, 2020 news

new pictures Abia sericea; Aceria liszkai; Acleris hastiana; Aculus scutellariae; Allantus cinctus, viennensis; Ametastegia equiseti; Andricus foecundatrix, hungaricus; Anthonomus pedicularius; Apethymus spec.; Aspidiotus nerii; Blennocampa phyllocolpa; Byctiscus betulae; Cacopsylla spec.; Caliroa cerasi; Cimbex femoratus, luteus; Cladius compressicornis, grandis; Claremontia cf. alternipes; Colletotrichum nymphaeae; Contarinia tiliarum; Dasineura fructum, gleditchiae; Diprion similis; Dolerus madidus; Eriocampa ovata; Eriocrania […]

April, 2020 news

new identification keys for galls by Hans Roskam Aconitum, Aegopodium, Alchemilla, Alliaria, Alopecurus, Alyssum, Anchusa, Anthemis, Anthyllis, Apium, Aquilegia, Armoracia, Arrhenatherum, Avenula, Berberis, Berteroa, Bidens, Camelina, Carpinus, Carum, Chaerophyllum, Clematis, Cornus, Corylus, Cucumis, Cydonia, Echium, Erysimum, Fragaria, Geum, Gypsophila, Helianthemum, Hypericum, Isatis, Mentha, Knautia, Laserpitium, Lithospermum, Moehringia, Onobrychis, Papaver, Phalaris, Phragmites, Phyteuma, Picris, Pisum, Primula, […]

March, 2020 news

new identification keys for galls by Hans Roskam Agrostis, Angelica, Arabis, Beta, Calamagrostis, Capsella, Cerastium, Chenopodium, Cytisus, Daucus, Dianthus, Erigeron, Fagus, Galeopsis, Genista, Hordeum, Hypochaeris, Inula, Lactuca, Lamium, Leontodon, Linaria, Lolium, Matricaria, Pastinaca, Pinus, Plantago, Poa, Sisymbrium. new pictures Andricus quercusradicis; Antispilina ludwigi; Brachycaudus helichrysi; Cimbex femoratus; Cystiphora sonchi; Depressaria radiella; Diodaulus linariae; Erysiphe heraclei; […]

panicule glossary

(paniculus) Inflorescence, like in some grasses, with a long central axis bearing a number of branched lateral axes.

February, 2020 news

new identification keys for galls by Hans Roskam Anemone s.l., Aster s.l., Avena, Cardamine, Astragalus, Epilobium s.l., Festuca s.l., Filipendula, Fraxinus, Juniperus, Lonicera, Peucedanum, Picea, Pimpinella, Sinapis, Solanum, Sorbus, Stellaria, Tilia. new pictures Aceria eucricotes; Acericecis szepligetii; Amauromyza fraxini; Andricus aries, callidoma; Calyciphora albodactylus; Eriosoma lanigerum; Erysiphe arcuata; Fenusella nana; Isocolus scabiosae; Kaltenbachiella pallida; Microstroma […]

January, 2020 news

new pictures Aphis farinosa; Aulagromyza luteoscutellata; Brassicogethes aeneus; Coleophora badiipennella; Hyalopterus pruni; Janetia homocera; Microbotryum cordae; Mollisia plantaginis; Neodiprion sertifer; Peronospora calotheca; Phyllonorycter klemannella; Plectosphaerella alismatis; Prociphilus fraxinifolii; Sphacelotheca hydropiperis; Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae; Heterotrioza chenopodii, rhamni.

December, 2019 news

new identification keys by Hans Roskam Brassica, Campanula, Crataegus, Euphorbia, Geranium, Hieracium, Medicago, Potentilla, Pyrus, Rhamnus, Ribes, Senecio, Silene, Ulmus, Vicia, Viola new pictures Aproceros leucopoda; Caloptilia roscipennella; Fenusa dohrnii; Phyllonorycter schreberella; Pterocomma populeum.

November, 2019 news

new identification keys Hans Roskam has written identification keys to the galls on the “large” genera: Acer, Achillea, Alnus, Artemisia, Carex, Centaurea, Chrysanthrmum s.l., Cirsium, Crepis, Elymus s.l., Galium, Lathyrus, Malus, Populus, Prunus, Quercus, Rosa, Rubus, Rumex, Salix, Trifolium, and Veronica. new pictures Agromyza idaeiana; Andricus legitimus, sieboldi; Brevicoryne brassicae; Caloptilia cuculipennella; Chaitophorus leucomelas; Coleophora […]

October, 2019 news

new gall midge for the Benelux Xenodiplosis laeviusculi. new pictures Acericecis campestre; Amauromyza elaeagni; Andricus foecundatrix; Antispila treitschkiella; Coleophora cornutella; Euura auritae, triandrae; Lampronia fuscatella; Lasioptera arundinis; Lipara similis; Metopeurum fuscoviride; Pediaspis aceris; Phragmidium potentillae; Phyllonorycter lantanella; Rabdophaga dubiosa; Tetranychus urticae; Tuberculatus annulatus.

September, 2019 news

new gall midge for the Benelux Ozirhincus hungaricus. new pictures cf Abacarus hystrix, Aceria achilleae, cornuta, salviae; Aculus schmardae; Americina media; cf Blastodiplosis artemisiae; Botrytis convallariae; Chilaspis nitida; Coleophora sccifolia; Coleosporium asterum; Dasineura gleditchiae, similis, tetrahit; Eotetranychus tiliarium, Eriophyes pyri; Eteobalea teucrii; Eucallipterus tiliae; Gephyraulus raphanistri; Liposthenes glechomae; Macrolabis achilleae; Melanagromyza lappae; Microbotryum saponariae; Ozirhincus […]

August, 2019 news

Important publication JC Roskam, Plant Galls of Europe. Three volumes hard bound set, 2292 pages, € 399. The book offers an English translation and modernisation of Herbert Buhr’s 1964/’65 compendium of the European plant galls. Moreover the older work of Houard, that was more specifically aimed at southern Europe has been incorporated, and of course […]

July, 2019 news

Important new book Julia Kruse, 2019a. Faszinierende Pflanzenpilze: erkennen und bestimmen. Quelle & Meyer, pp 528, ca. € 40. Discusses several hundreds species of parasitic fungi, based on pictures of their macroscopic infection image, arranged by plant species. new pictures Aceria opulifolii; Callipterinella tuberculata; Calophya rhois; Choreutis pariana; Coleophora albella, arctostaphyli, bornicensis, striatipennella; Dasineura on […]

June, 2019 news

new gall midge for the Benelux Dasineura fructum. new pictures Acalitus plicans; Aceria campestricola, drabae, fraxinicola; Adelges laricis; Albugo lepidii; Anthracoidea subinclusa; Aphis commensalis, farinosa, sambuci, umbrella; Aristotelia brizella; Ascochyta amelanchieris; Bremia lapsanae; Cinara cupressi; Colopha compressa; Contarinia molluginis; Dasineura bergrothiana, tympani; Deightoniella arundinacea; Didymomyia tiliacea; Dysaphis devecta; Eulecanium tiliae; Exobasidium uvae-ursi; Grypocentrus spec.; Harmandiola […]

May, 2019 news

new pictures Andricus quercusramuli; Blennocampa phyllocolpa; Dasineura gleditchiae; Dictyla humuli; Euura virilis; Hinatara recta; Lachnus roboris; Leptotrochila cerastiorum; Liosomaphis berberidis; Milesina scolopendrii; Parna apicalis; Peronospora arborescens, corydalis, digitalis, trifolii-arvensis; Prociphilus bumeliae; Psylla buxi; Puccinia cyani, piloselloidearum, sii-falcariae, thlaspeos; Pustula obtusata; Scythropia crataegella; Taphrina pruni; Tomostethus nigritus.

receptacle glossary

The, more or less dish-shaped, widened top part of the flower stalk of Asteraceae (Compositae) where the florets are inserted in the flower head.

April, 2019 news

new pictures Aceria laticincta; Aleurotuba jelinekii; Andricus sternlichti; Antherospora scillae; Aphis spiraecola, spiraephaga; Dasineura tympani; Discogloeum veronicae; Gymnosporangium clavariiforme; Lasioptera rubi; Mastigosporium album; Ochsenheimeria taurella; Peronospora alsinearum; Phytomyza ranunculi; Puccinia adoxae, obscura, violae; Septoria tanaceti; Stigmella pyrellicola; Taphrina rhizophora; Urocystis anemones, ficariae.

March, 2019 news

the site In order to warrant the continuity of this website, EIS Kenniscentrum Insecten (Center of Expertise Insects) and Naturalis have confirmed their support. The logos of both organisations are displayed on the site. new miner for the Netherlands Mompha lacteella new pictures Agromyza nana; Coleroa chaetomium; Cumminsiella mirabilissima; Cydia millenniana; Diplolepis fructuum; Entyloma bellidis; […]

February, 2019 news

new pictures Aleurochiton aceris; Andricus curvator; Aphis newtoni; Cheilosia fasciata; Cryptonevra flavitarsis; Euura piliserra; Hinatara recta; Kuehneola uredinis; Neoglocianus maculaalba; Obdulia spec.; Podosphaera pannosa; Pucciniastrum areolatum; Rhodus cyprius; Stigmella mespilicola; Urophora stylata.

January, 2019 news

new holly miner in the Netherlands and Belgium Phytomyza jucunda. new pictures Aceria pistaciae, spartii, stefanii; Albugo candida; Andricus quercusramuli, quercustozae; Anthracoidea caryophylleae; Aonidia lauri; Aphis verbasci; Asphondylia ervi; Caliroa annulipes; Contarinia acetosellae, valerianae; Dasineura lithospermi, lotharingiae, violae; Dryocosmus kuriphilus; Epichloe baconii, clarkii, festucae; Farysia thuemenii; Incurvaria pectinea; Jaapiella veronicae; Melampsora euonymi-caprearum; Myricomyia mediterranea; Myzus […]

December, 2018 news

new pictures Andricus inflator; Callipterinella calliptera; Contarinia nasturtii; Corythucha arcuata; Diastrophus rubi; Diplolepis spinosissimae; Gypsonoma dealbana; Microlophium carnosum; Pristiphora testacea; Puccinia albescens; Rabdophaga heterobia; Rhodus cyprius.

November, 2018 news

a new gall on walnut: Aceria brachytarsus new pictures Andricus quercusramuli; Asphondylia rosmarini; Baizongia pistaciae; Chromaphis juglandicola; Coleophora salicorniae; Corythucha ciliata; Ectoedemia quinquella; Golovinomyces asterum var. moroczkovskii; Hyaloperonospora galligena; Podosphaera euphorbiae; Puccinia hordei, longicornis; Septoria aegopodii; Stephensia brunnichella; Stigmella trimaculella; Trioza remota.

crawler glossary

The first larval stage of scale insects and whiteflies. Later stages are immobile and attached to the plant, therefore this first, mobile, stage is crucial for the dispersal of the species.

October, 2018 news

new pictures Aceria kuko, leioprocta; Adscita statices; Aequsomatus annulatus; Calycomyza humeralis; Cheilosia caerulescens; Coccus hesperidum; Cosmopterix orichalcea; Contarinia pseudotsugae; Ectoedemia atricollis; Neuroterus quercusbaccarum; Phyllosticta paviae; Ramularia bistortae; Taphrina crataegi.

September, 2018 news

new miner for the Benelux Cosmopterix orichalcea new pictures Aceria hippophaena, vitalbae; Adelges tardus; Aphis craccivora; Aproceros leucopoda; Argyresthia glabratella; Ascochyta caulina; Aulacidea hieracii; Aulagromyza similis; Carulaspis juniperi; Chromatomyia ramosa, soldanellae; Clinodiplosis cilicrus; Coleosporium tussilaginis; Commophila aeneana; Cosmopterix pulchrimella; Cryptomyzus galeopsidis; Dasineura berberidis, epilobii, phyteumatis; Diastrophus mayri; Dothidella ulmi; Ectoedemia atricollis; Endothenia lapideana; Ephestia welseriella; […]

August, 2018 news

new miner for the Benelux Phyllocnistis valentinensis new pictures Aceria ononidis, tenella; Aecidium clematidis; Andricus infectorius; Anthonomus pedicularius; Cacopsylla ulmi; Cenopalpus spinosus; Cladosporium uredinicola; Colopha compressa; Cydia servillana; Diplocarpon rosae; Diplolepis mayri; Ditula angustiorana; Euura virilis; Gelechia senticetella; Golovinomyces monardae; Liriomyza eupatorii; Lyonetia clerkella; Melanopsichium pennsylvanicum; Obolodiplosis robiniae; Ophiomyia aquilegiana; Pegomya steini; Peronospora stigmaticola; Phacellium […]

What is the meaning of the literature references? Frequently Asked Question

They list the sources upon which the description is based. It certainly does not pretend to give an exhaustive list of the literature about the species in question.

July, 2018 host plant genus, news

new rust fungus host plant new pictures Aceria echii, ilicis, laticincta, ononidis; Aecidium clematidis; Aphis farinosa; Apiognomonia errabunda; Asphondylia melanopus; Cavariella theobaldi; Cercospora davisii, violae; Chaitophorus leucomelas, populeti; Chromatomyia gentianae; Dasineura harrisoni, pyri; Diplocarpon mespili; Eriocrania sparrmannella; Euphyllura phillyreae; Exobasidium vaccinii; Fusarium graminearum; Iteomyia major; Jaapiella schmidti; Leucoptera lotella, lustratella; Liriomyza ptarmicae; Lyonetia clerkella; Melanaphis […]

antagonist glossary

literally: opponent; an organism that in some way has a negative influence, e.g. a competitor or predator.

June, 2018 host plants, news

correctie The pictures of Melanustilospora ari on this site did not represent this fungus. new miner for the Benelux Phytomyza silai new pictures Aceria myriadeum, tenuis; Adscita statices; Andricus solitarius; Anisostephus betulinus; Anthracoidea pratensis; Arthrocnodax spec.; Ascochyta asclepiadearum; Blumeriella jaapii; Caryophylloseptoria lychnidis; Cenopalpus spinosus; Cercospora resedae; Chromatomyia scolopendri; Cladosporium aecidiicola; Contarinia petioli; Dasineura ranunculi; ? […]

May, 2018 news

new miner for the Netherlands Hinatara recta new pictures Aculops macrotrichus; Adelges laricis; Andricus curvator, malpighii, paradoxus, quercuscorticis; Cacopsylla pulchella; Cryptomyzus ribis; Dasineura cf loewiana, pyri; Dendrothrips ornatus; Digitivalva arnicella; Dryomyia cocciferae; Entyloma ranunculi-scelerati; Eriocrania salopiella; Eriophyes homophyllus, inangulis; Euceraphis betulae; Euura mucronata; Heringocrania unimaculella; Japanagromyza salicifolii; Lasioptera eryngii; Lipaphis alliariae; Macrodiplosis pustularis; Myzus langei; […]

tergite glossary

sclerite (hardened chitine plate) at the dorsal side of a thoracic or abdominal segment in an insect.

sternite glossary

sclerite (hardened chitine plate) at the ventral side of a thoracic or abdominal segment in an insect.

sectaseta glossary

A specialised form of setae (“hairs”) in some insects. They consist of a cup-shaped base, with on top a short dagger- or tube-shaped seta. In Triozidae larvae the margins of the abdomen, wing pads and head bear a row of sectasetae, each one of which produces a long, glistening thread of wax A number of […]

April, 2018 news

new pictures Aceria macrorhyncha; Andricus callidoma, foecundatrix; Bucculatrix frangutella; eggs of Cacopsylla spec.; Coleophora laricella; Dasineura aparines; Hexomyza simplicoides; Phragmidium rosae-pimpinellifoliae; Plenodomus visci; Podosphaera leucotricha; Puccinia allii, bornmuelleri, liliacearum; Pustula obtusata; Rhopobota ustomaculana; Sphaeropsis visci; Tranzschelia anemones; Trisetacus pini.

March, 2018 news

new pictures Aculus hippocastani, magnirostris; Aulagromyza caraganae; Caloptilia staintoni; Cecidophyes nudus, psilonotus; Coleophora otidipennella; Coleosporium campanulae; Dasineura cytisi; Ectoedemia heringella; Eriophyes exilis; Gymnosporangium sabinae; Leucoptera spartifoliella; Mikiola fagi; Orchestes jota; Panaphis juglandis; Peronospora chenopodii, somniferi; Phyllonorycter froelichiella; Phytomyza agromyzina; Phytoptus abnormis; Polystigma rubrum; Profenusa pygmaea; Rabdophaga dubiosa, pierreana, saliciperda; Trifurcula immundella.

February, 2018 news

new pictures Acalitus brevitarsus; Aceria cerrea, salviae; Aculus mosoniensis; Aculus acraspis; cf Agrobacterium tumefaciens; Aphelonyx cerricola; Blennocampa phyllocolpa; Cerodontha iraeos; Coleophora acrisella, albicosta, arenicola, festivella, fretella, helianthemella, semicinerea, trifolii; Dasineura napi, ulmaria; Janetiella lemeei; Melampsora euonymi-caprearum; Neuroterus anthracinus; Parapodia sinaica; Periclistus caninae; Planetella tarda; Pristiphora monogyniae; Rabdophaga rosaria; Stefaniella trinacriae.

cornicle glossary

Less often used equivalent of siphunculus

January, 2018 news

new gall midge for the fauna of the Benelux Cystiphora leontodontis new pictures Andricus caputmedusae, lucidus, sieboldi; Camarotoscena speciosa; Ceutorhynchus assimilis; Contarinia anthobia; Lipara lucens; Macrodiplosis pustularis; Monarthropalpus flavus; Mycodiplosis larvae; Podosphaera leucotricha; Puccinia menthae; Uromyces pisi. Strongly aberrant galls Euura (Pontania) proxima

ovisac glossary

A sac, made out of wax threads or silk, containing eggs.

December, 2017 news

new pictures Aceria fraxinivora, sanguisorbae; Agrobacterium tumefaciens; Asterodiaspis spec.; cf Chlorops strigulus; Cryptosiphum artemisiae; Dasineura centaureae; Diastrophus rubi; Eriosoma lanigerum; Isothea rhytismoides; Lasioptera rubi; Mimeuria ulmiphila; Planchonia arabidis; Pterotopteryx dodecadactyla; Puccinia cynodontis; ? Steneotarsonemus holci; Triphragmium ulmariae; Uroleucon taraxaci.

ovipara glossary

(pl oviparae).Aphids generally during the summer pass through a number of consecutive generations of viviparae, females that asexually produce living young. The final generation that is born in autumn is different, consisting of males and females that, after being fertilized, lay eggs that enable the population to hibernate. These egg-laying females are called oviparae.

November, 2017 news

new smut fungus for the flora of Belgium Entyloma tanaceti new mine for the Benelux Cosmopterix pulchrimella found in western Belgium new pictures Aceria artemisiae; Agrobacterium tumefaciens; Agromyza idaeiana (mine, puparium); Aphis pomi; Bremia cirsii; Camarotoscena speciosa; Campiglossa plantaginis; Caricosipha paniculatae; Ceruraphis eriophori; Chrysoesthia sexguttella; Coleophora atriplicis, coronillae; Cosmopterix scribaiella larva; Dasineura dioicae, lotharingiae; Dysaphis […]

brachypterous glossary

With more or less strongly reduced wings.

October, 2017 news

“new” gall on rosemary Pseudomonas syringae ? new gall for the Benelux Rhopalomyia palaearum new mine for the Benelux Stigmella nivenburgensis (numerous localities!) new edition gall field guide Roelof Jan Koops: “Veldgids Plantengallen” unknown Mayetiola on Milium effusum new host plant Phyllonorycter comparella: Populus x canadensis (This made it necessary to rewrite the Phyllonorycter section […]

vivipara glossary

(pl viviparae). Female aphid that, without fertilisation, produces living young. Often viviparae are wingless (“apterae”), but they may winged as well (“alatae”). Usually a species during summer has a number of generations of viviparae. In autumn male and female aphids are born. The fertilised females (the “oviparae”) lay eggs by which the population passes the […]

aestivation glossary

Summer dormancy; a period when an insect enters a state of immobility and lowered metabolism, analogous to hibernation.

filament glossary

A mass of conidia, extruded as a white thread Eudarluca caricis, a parasite in the telia of a rust fungus

rostrum glossary

In aphids the lower lip (labium), that ahs been transformed into a hollow tube. Through this tube the stylets can be pushed out. The stylets, strongly modified mandibles and maxillae, pierce into deeper layers of the plant’s tissue and bring up the sap.

protocedium glossary

In sawflies it sometimes happens that the oviposition scar functions as a gall for the very youngest stage of the larva; once the scar has been eaten out the larva starts living free on the plant. The scar then is addressed sometimes as a protocecidium, “predecessor of a gall”. protocecidium of an unknown sawfly on […]

annulet glossary

The body segments of sawfly larvae are subdivided by deep grooves. The number of these subdivisions, “annulets”, is of taxonomic importance. (From Lorenz & Kraus, 1957)

pseudocerci glossary

A pair of short appendages at the terminal segment of some sawfly larva.

September, 2017 news

new species for the Benelux Phytomyza actaeae new book Arnold Grosscurt, Plantengallen aberrant galls on rose Diplolepis nervosa/eglanteriae new pictures Acalyptris minimella; Aceria chondrillae, megacera, stefanii; Acericecis szepligetii, vitrina; Aculus magnirostris; Aecidium ranunculi-acris; Albugo candida; Ametrodiplosis thalictricola; Anthracoidea subinclusa; Aphidoletes aphidimyza; Aphis umbrella; Aploneura lentisci; Arthrocnodax coryligallarum; Carpomyia schineri; Clinodiplosis cilicrus; Contarinia coryli, loti; Dothidella […]

sclerite glossary

Slab of chitin

nymph glossary

Larvae of insects with an incomplete metamorphosis, in particular Hemiptera (bugs, aphids and relatives) are often addressed as nymphs.

gallicola glossary

A female aphid in, or coming out of a gall.

anholocyclic glossary

The opposite of holocyclic; see there

holocyclic glossary

The life cycle of some insect groups, like aphids and gall wasps consists of an alternation between a sexual generation and an asexual one. Such a complete cycle is called holocyclic. Some, related species however may have an abbreviated cycle: either only a sexual stage, or continuous asexual reproduction; this situation is called anholocyclic.

inquiline glossary

An animal that lives in the nest, colony, or burrow and another animal species. In connection with this site generally a larva that lives in, and feeds on, a gall that has been caused by the actual galling insect. The severity of the ensuing competition varies strongly. Galls that are co-occupied by one or more […]

pterostigma glossary

(Often just stigma). A cell in the venation of an insect wing, always at the frontal margin and not far from the tip, that mostly is thickened and darkly coloured.

indumentum glossary

The hair cover of a plant.

pappus glossary

The “plume” on top of the fruit of most Asteraceae; Also to total of them within a flower head.

capitulum glossary

Flower head; the inflorescence of Asteraceae and some other families that is so compact that it looks (and functions) like a single flower.

peduncle glossary

A stalk supporting an inflorescence

multivoltine glossary

Having a large number of generations per year; in warmer regions having one or more generations also during the winter. There is only a short period of pupal rest.

teleutosorus glossary

(pl teleutosori). Currently unusual equivalent of telium.

mesospores glossary

The large genus of rust fungi, Puccinia, is characterised by having two-celled teliospores. However, a, generally quite small, minority of the spores is unicellular; they are addressed as mesospores.

apodous references

Without feet.

aciculate glossary

Needle-shaped.

fusiform glossary

Spindle-shaped.

ventral plates glossary

Mostly brown plates at the ventral side (rarely also at the dorsal side) in some larvae of the genus Ectoedemia; they only occur in the youngest stages. young larva of Ectoedemia atricollis in its mine.

uredinium glossary

(pl uredinia). The third stage in the life cycle of rust fungi, after the aecia and before the telia.The mostly look like light brown to chestnut brown powdery, up to 2 mm large pustules.

univoltine glossary

One generation per year.

thorax glossary

The body part of an insect between head an abdomen, that in the larval stage (generally) bears feet, and in the imago (generally) also wings.

teleutospores glossary

Less currently used synonym of teliospores.

smut fungus glossary

Fungus of the class Ustilaginales.

rust fungus glossary

Fungus of the class Pucciniales.

pedicel glossary

Generally: stalk; applied in particular for the stalk of a teliospore.

August, 2017 news

New pictures Aceria macrochela, tuberculata; Andricus foecundatrix, hungaricus, infectorius; Bactericera femoralis; Bremia lactucae, tulasnei; Cameraria ohridella; Coleophora plumbella, siccifolia; Cupido minimus; Dasineura fraxini, rosae; Diplolepis eglanteriae; Erysiphe elevata, lonicerae var. lonicerae, magnifica, necator, trifoliorum; Hayhurstia atriplicis; Illinoia lambersi; Janetia panteli; Liriomyza approximata, eupatorii; Mompha divisella; Neoerysiphe galeopsidis; Neuroterus anthracinus, quercusbaccarum; Oligotrophus schmidti; Pemphigus spyrothecae; Phragmidium […]

S (references) host plants, references

Saba M & Khalid AN, 2013a. Species diversity of genus Puccinia (Basidiomycota, Uredinales) parasitizing poaceous hosts in Pakistan. – International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 15: 580–584. Sabatelli S, Liu M, Badano D, Mancini E, Trizzino M, Cline AR, Endrestøl A, Huang M & Audisio P, 2020a. Molecular phylogeny and host‐plant use (Lamiaceae) of the […]

telium glossary

(pl telia). The fourth stage in the life cycle of rust fungi, Pucciniales. Generally they appear after the uredinia, and are darker in colour. Puccinia ptarmicae: a telium under the microscope

spatula glossary

Mature larvae of gall midges often have ventrally on the thorax a chitinous rod, at the front end ending in a small fork. The spatula is used by the larva when it has to force itself out of the gall. Most of the spatula lies internal, just below the epidermis; only the part above the […]

vagrant glossary

Living freely on the leaves; phrase used in particular for gall mites.

sorus glossary

(pl sori). A compact cluster of spores forming fungal tissue, like an uredinium or telium.

trichome glossary

Hairs of plants, and also their modifications in an erineum, are fundamentally different from the hairs of mammals. In the technical literature they therefore often are addressed as trichomes.

seta glossary

(pl setae). The “hairs” of arthropods differ in their structure fundamentally from those of mammals, and therefore are called setae. Thick and heavy setae also are designated as bristles.

rachis glossary

Main axis of a composite leaf, or of fern leaf.

pulvinate glossary

Cushon-shaped.

teleomorph glossary

The sexual stage of a fungus (contrasting with anamorph).

spermogonium glossary

(pl spermonia). First stage in the life cycle of the Pucciniales. It are mostly orange-coloured pycnidia the at maturity exude liquid. Puccinia festucae on Lonicera periclymenum Puccinia festucae

sporodichium glossary

(pl sporodochia). Cushion-shaped organ, at the outer surface of which conidia are formed.

siphunculus glossary

(pl siphunculi). A pair of rod-like appendages on the abdomen, an exclusive character of the family Aphididae, aphids. The exude a viscous liquid containing mainly excess sugars – to obtain the necessary amount of amino acids, aphids need to digest much liquid, and ingest much more sugars than needed. Shape, sculpture and even colour of […]

yeast glossary

One-celled fungus, that reproduces asexually by sprouting or cell division. Some groups of fungi are permanently in this stage, but many Ustilaginomycotina, and also the species of Taphrina pass their anamorphic stage as yeasts.

perithecium glossary

(pl perithecia). Globular or flask-shaped organ, provided with an opening (ostium), containing asci.

oospore glossary

Thick-walled cell, derived in a fertilised oogonium, embedded in the host plant tissue. Their biological function mostly is of a resting spore, in particular for hibernation. Two still rather young oospores, each one in its oogonium.

septum glossary

(pl septa). Dividing wall, e.g. in a fungal spore or hypha. Often a septum contains a pore that enables some regulated connection between the protoplasma at either side. Hyphae without septa are called aseptate.

systemic glossary

Most fungal infection are local. However, in some species the mycelium pervades the entire plant body. This has important biological implications: the fungus may be dispersed by infected seed, and the fungus may hibernate in the below-grond pats of the plant.

chlamydospore glossary

A thick-walled fungal spore that develops from a hyphe cell.

cauda glossary

A prolongation of the terminal abdominal segment in aphids. Its shape is diagnostic.

colony glossary

-> caespitulus

caespitulus glossary

(pl caespituli). Cluster of hyphae, conidiophores and conidia free on a leaf, often erupting through a stoma. It forms the anamorphic stage of a variety of fungi, grouped conventionally under the term Hyphomycetes. Instead of the technical term often the word “colony” is used.

sclerotium glossary

(pl sclerotia). A hard, dry of fungal tissue that is resistant to unfavourable conditions and may remain in a resting state for an extended period.

sporangium glossary

(pl sporangia). A hollow organ, in which spores are formed.

sporangiophore glossary

A stalk, branched or not, bearing sporangia.

stroma glossary

(pl stromata). A compact mass of fungal tissue; generally reproductive organs are formed inside.

feeding punctures glossary

Pin-sized puncture made by an agromyzid female with her ovipositor in the surface of leaf. She subsequently drinks from the extruding sap. Males, not having an ovipositor, drink from the punctures that the females have made. A single female can make many tens of punctures in a leaf. When Agromyzidae are a pest it often […]

stemma glossary

(pl stemmata). The individual facets of the eye of an insect larva. They are not lying adjacent to another, like in the imaginal eye.

pycnidium glossary

(pl pycnidia). Cavity in the plant tissue, in which asexual fungal spores (conidia) are formed, and ejected through a pore. Contrary to acervuli, pycnidia are situated deep in the plant tissue, and from the outside recognisable only by their opening.

primary host plant glossary

Many aphid species go through an alternation of hostplants. In spring a fertilised female then starts a colony on a, generally woody, primary host plant. After spring, when the nutritional quality of the host plant’s juices is diminishing, migration takes place to a secondary, non-woody, host plant.

secondary blotch mine glossary

Blotch that originates when a gallery is so densely wound that the separating walls wholly or partly disappear (are eaten away). Sometimes the remnants of the walls are visible as secondary feeding lines; more often the frass pattern indicates a secondary blotch.

primary blotch mine glossary

Blotch, caused by the larva feeding from the centre in all directions.

pupal chamber glossary

Cell or small blotch, often separated from the main mine, where pupation takes place. More or less distinct part of the mine, in which the pupa(rium) is waiting.

primary feeding lines glossary

Arrangement of remnants of green leaf tissue in a pattern of parallel lines of made by the mowing movement of an agromyzid larva that is grazing away the leaf tissue while lying on its side. Trypeta artemisiae: primary feeding lines

Phytomyzinae type glossary

Rear part of the cephalic skeleton with 2 “arms” (character of the Agromyzidae subfamily Phytomyzinae). The cephalic skeletons of the two Agromyzidae in comparison: Agromyzinae (left) and Phytomyzinae (right)

Tephritidae type glossary

Characteristic form of the cephalic skeleton. Acidiia cognata larva: cephalic skeleton

spiraculum glossary

The exit of the tracheal system. To prevent the entrance of unwanted material the openings have a complex structure. Fly larvae have two pairs of spiracula, one pair just behind the ‘head’, another pair near the end of the abdomen. In Agromyzidae the spiracula mostly are stalked. The tracheae are connected with the outside world […]

plurivoltine glossary

Several generations per year.

plasmodium glossary

A mass of protoplasma containing a number of nuclei, not separated by cell walls.

petiole glossary

The “stalk” of a leaf.

puparium glossary

The barrel-shaped “pupa” of a fly ( not of a midge: midges generally have a true pupa). It merits a word for its own because, although it looks like a pupa, it essentially is the last dried larval skin, with the true pupa inside. Only at rare occasions it is possible to see the real […]

prepupa glossary

The final larval stage of sawflies often differs considerably from the preceding stages: there are differences in the shape of the mandibles, and often the prepupa is entirely white of bone-coloured. At this stage feeding as stopped and the larva is remarkably sluggish. Scolioneura vicina: prepupa

perithecium glossary

Special type of ascocarp: flask-shaped, opening with a pore.

peridium glossary

The wall of a sporangium or other spore-forming organ. The aecia of rust fungi originally are a hollow bladder, the when ripe burst at the tip; the wall, i.e. the peridium, is forming then a characteristic fringe. The term is applied also to the wall of a cleistothecium.

oviposition scar glossary

In cases where the egg is deposited within the plant tissue, this is done either by means of an ovipositor, or by biting a hole in the leaf (mostly a thick vein). This causes a wound reaction of the plant, that may remain long after the mine has been vacated. Fenusa dohrni: mines, each one […]

spongy parenchyma glossary

The lower half of the thickness of a leaf, consisting of loosely arranged cells with large air spaces between them. This tissue functions essentially for the exchange of gasses: supply of carbon dioxide and the removal of oxygen. Fagus sylvatica: transverse section through a leaf with palissade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma below.

palissade parenchyma glossary

A layer of columnar cells (generally one to three cells thick) that form the upper layer of a leaf, just below the epidermis. This section of the leaf is particularly adapted to photosynthesis, and contains the highest number of chlorophyll grains. (Not all plants have a palissade parenchyma, like ferns and grasses.) Fagus sylvatica: transverse […]

perforate mine glossary

An interparenchymatous mine, from where repeatedly pieces have been eaten out of the “roof”, i.e. the palissade parenchyma. At first sight this type of more looks like a piece of leaf diseased by some fungus. When held against the light such a mine has a perforated appearance. Phytomyza heracleana: example of a perforate mine.

oviposition glossary

The deposition of the egg(s).

oculus glossary

Thin-walled part of the wall of the tip of an ascus, through wich the spores are released. Podosphaera myrtillina var. myrtillina: ascus with at the upperside in the foto the oculus

myceloid glossary

In general aspect similar to normal undifferentiated mycelium.

mouth angle glossary

The anterior opening of the cases of Coleophoridae larve sometimes are perpendicular to the length axis of the case, but in many species it forms a more or less oblique angle. This is called the mouth angle.

metanotum glossary

The dorsal side of of the metathorax, i.e. the third segment of the thorax.

mesonotum glossary

The dorsal side of of the mesothorax, i.e. the middle segment of the thorax.

prothorax glossary

The first, foremost, segment of the thorax.

pronotum glossary

The dorsal side of of the prothorax.

prosternum glossary

The ventral side of of the prothorax.

mesal glossary

Seen from the median line.

caulicolous glossary

On the stem. (Most rust fungi occur on the leaves only, but some are also caulicolous.)

hypophyllous glossary

At/on the underside of a leaf.

epiphyllous glossary

At/on the upperside of a leaf.

instar glossary

There generally are three to five stages in the larval life of an insects, called instars, each one ending with a moult.

ecdysis glossary

The final moult, the one in which an imago emerges from its pupa.

cupulate glossary

Cup-shaped.

median glossary

On, of close by, an imaginary length line over the middle of the body.

mandible glossary

Insects have two pairs of jaws: the maxillae, situated deeper in the mouth and with a complicated structure, and the mandibles, large, built of one piece, that serve for biting. In maggots the mandibles are lost, but the mandibles ars still there, and sometimes are useful for identifications. Cerodontha incisa

mala glossary

Small lobe, next to the mesal side of the maxillary palp (techically the fused galea and lacinia of the maxillae). Zeugophora spec. from Medvedev & Zajcev (1978a): Maxilla, with to the left the maxillary palp and tot the right the mala; bottom right the tip of the underlip.

pallium glossary

Literally “mantle”, two flaps that in some Coleophora species hang on the anal end at either side of the case; in some species, like C. kuehnella the entire case may be covered. Coleophora ibipennella

parasitoid glossary

Many insects place their egg in or on the egg or larva of their prey; the larva that emerges slowly devours the host larva. To call this behaviour parasitic is not justified, because real parasites, like fleas or lice, need to keep their host alive, rather than to kill it. Therefore this type of insects […]

necrotic glossary

Bound to die, dying. Term used in connection with a part of an organism: “necrotic tissue”.

ovipositor glossary

In order to deposit her eggs inside the tissue of a living plant the female needs relatively much force. Often the terminal segments are adapted to the job, mostly by being heavily chitinised and hardened, like for example in the Agromyzidae, Cecidomyiidae, and Tephritidae. In the sawflies, Tenthredinidae, the ovipositor has taken the shape of […]

undersurface mine glossary

Mine in the sponge parenchyma.

lateral glossary

At/from the side.

larval chamber glossary

The part of a gallery mine where the larva resides. Obviously this part is free of frass and therefore gives an impression of the size of the larva, even if it has vacate the mine.

lamina glossary

Leaf disk.

polyphagous glossary

Living on two or more plant genera belonging to different families. If these families are closely related, one can speak of “narrow polyphagous”, in the opposite case of “broad polyphagous”.

monophagous glossary

Living on a single plant genus. If this species contains, within the distributional area of the parasite, many species, while the parasite lives on just one or a few of them, one can call the parasite “narrowly monophagous”.

oligophagous glossary

Feeding om a restricted number of plant genera, all of the same plant family.

cephalic skeleton glossary

Chitinous, X- or H-shaped structure in the “head” of Diptera maggots, on which the mandibles and chewing musculature are attached.

youth case glossary

Coleophoridae larve in self-made tubes. Som species are capable to enlarge the tubes in pace with their growth, but other species once of twice have to construct a new one. The first tube then often not only in size but also in shape differs appreciably from the later one(s). Coleophora serratella,youth case For comparison, the […]

interparenchymatous mine glossary

A rather uncommon type of mine, occurring in the Agromyzidae. The mines are made in the lowest part of the palissade parenchyma and/or the upper part of the sponge parenchyma. Interparenchymatous mines typically are yellow-green in colour.

integument glossary

The “skin” of a larva or imago.

maggot glossary

The order Diptera consists of two groups: midges (Nematocera) and true flies (Orthocera). Larvae of he relatively primitive Nematocera have a slender and a chitinised head. Larvae of the true flies have a much more compact build; moreover the head, with almost all of its organs has been almost completely reduced: maggots.

imago glossary

(pl imagines). The adult, sexual and winged, insect.

tentiform mine glossary

Essentially an upper- or (more commonly) lower-surface blotch mine, usually made by a Gracillariidae larva. The larva lines the interior of the mine wit silk; the silk gradually shrinks, causing the mine to bulge. Because the mine is not full depth both sides of the leaf behave differently then. The non-eaten leaf tissue because of […]

hypermetamorhosis glossary

When two successive larval stages differs much more strongly that normally is the case, and the impression is given of an extra metamorphosis, one speaks of a hypermetamorhosis. A striking example is given by the transition made by Gracillariidae from a sap drinking stage to a tissue feeding one, that moreover is accompanied by major […]

hibernaculum glossary

Construction in which an insect hibernates.

helicoidal glossary

Wound like a snail’s shell.

green island glossary

An autumn phenomenon. The presence of an occupied mine in a dying leaf can block the yellowing process. The tissue around the mine keeps its original green colour, even when the leaf already has fallen to the ground.

gallery glossary

A (apt of) a mine that is at least 4 times longer than wide; opposite to blotch mine.

phytophagous glossary

Feeding on plants.

Fungi Imperfecti glossary

Antiquates synonym for Deuteromycetes

fundatrix glossary

(pl fundatrices).Hibernated, female aphids that start a new colony in spring. The fundatrix has hatched from a fertilised egg. Her feeding activity may induce gall formation.

full depth glossary

Mine where (almost) all the leaf tissue between upper and lower epidermis has been eaten away.

frontal appendage glossary

Finger-shaped unpaired appendage in front of the head in several Agromyzidae larvae. Phytomyza ilicis

frass glossary

Excrements of phytophagous insects.

fleck mine glossary

Full depth blotch, not containing frass, and invariably with one, more or less central, usually circular, hole. Made by a larva (usually a Coleophora that operates from the outside. The larva first bites the hole in the epidermis, then from that point it eats away as much leaf tissue as it can reach without fully […]

fibrosin bodies glossary

Strongly refractive particles in the conidia of some true mildews. They somewhat remind of shards of glass. Podosphaera fugax

exuvium glossary

(pl exuvia) Cast larval or pupal skin.

exit slit glossary

Many species pupate outside their mine. Before vacating the mine they use their mandibles to cut a slit in the epidermis; this slit mostly has a very fixed, more or less semicircular shape. Often it is species-specific whether the slit is made in the upper or lower epidermis. Phytomyza minuscula, vacated mine: illumination from behind […]

erineum glossary

(pl erinea). Gall in the form of an abnormal hair cover, often with elongated, strongly curled or apically swollen plant hairs. Erinea are caused by gall mites. Aceria pseudoplatani

epipharynx glossary

Membraneous extension of the upper lip (labium), in fact its outwardly protruding inside. The epipharynx may bear a number of specialised flattened setae. Zeugophora sp., from Medvedev & Zajcev (1978a). From the top down: the clypeus, upper lip (labium) and the epipharynx with specialised, flattened, epipharyngeal seta

pinaculum glossary

(pl pinacula). In Lepidoptera larvae: small chitin plates, often coloured brown or black, on which long setae (“hairs”) are inserted.

epidermal mine glossary

Mine that (almost) entirely is restricted to the epidermis; always has a silvery appearance.

epidermis glossary

The outermost layer of cells of the leaf, in fact, the skin of the leaf. The epidermis consists of somewhat flattened cells that do not contain chlorophyll. The outside wall of the epidermis cells is thickened: the cuticle.

Drosophilidae-type glossary

Cephalic skeleton, typiical for the Drosophilidae. Scaptomyza flava

powdery mildews glossary

Erysiphaceae.

downy mildews glossary

Peronosporaceae.

ventral glossary

At the belly-side, seen from below.

dorsal glossary

At the upper side, seen from above.

proximal glossary

Nearest, nearest to the centre.

distal glossary

Furthest from the centre.

digitiform process glossary

A process in the shape of a (short) finger.

dichotome glossary

Splitting in two identical branches.

deuterogyne glossary

In some species of gall mites (Eriophioidea), mainly in species living on woody plants, next to the normal type of females (protogynes) another type occurs, deuterogynes. They are better adapted to unfavourable conditions; often deuterogynes form the hibernation or dispersal stage.

cremaster glossary

Extension of the last (10th) segment of a Lepidoptera pupa. It generally bears spines or other structures of species-specific shape.

window feeding glossary

Damage to a leaf, caused by a larva that locally consumed all leaf tissue except either the upper or the lower epidermis, leaving a conspicuous, very transparent “window”. Window feeding can easily be mistaken for a mine; see the little chapter about “pseudo-mines” window feeding on Annual Mercury especially in fresh feeding traces the thickness […]

tarsi glossary

The most distal part of an insect foot, consisting of a number of tarsi. The last one generally end in one or two tarsal claws and and attachment pad.

tibia glossary

An insect foot has the following joints: first a short coxa (“hip”), a generaly kong femur (“thigh”), a gnerally long tibia (“shin”) and finally some short tarsi.

femur glossary

An insect foot has the following joints: first a short coxa (“hip”), a generaly kong femur (“thigh”), a gnerally long tibia (“shin”) and finally some short tarsi.

coxa glossary

An insect foot has the following joints: first a short coxa (“hip”), a generaly kong femur (“thigh”), a gnerally long tibia (“shin”) and finally some short tarsi.

xenophagy glossary

Literally “foreign eating”: the occurrence of a parasite on a “wrong” host plant (usually systematically more or less related with the true host plant). In most cases the larva dies prematurely.

conidiodoma glossary

(pl conidiodomata). Specialised structure upon or within which conidia are formed.

conidiophore glossary

Simple or branched fungus hyphae on which one or more conidia are formed. Peronospora radii

conidium glossary

(pl conidia). Asexually formed, nonmotile, fungal spores. Erysiphe deutziae

columella glossary

(Literally: small column): rod-like central part of an ovary that has been destroyed by some smut fungi The columella is composed of both fungal and host material (McTaggart ao, 2012a). Sphacelotheca hydropiperis

Deuteromycetes glossary

(= Deuteromycota = Fungi Imperfecti).Fungi generally alternate between an asexual stage, called the anamorph, and a quite different sexual stage, the teleomorph. In many cases only one of the two stages is known, or the relation the two has not yet been established. Often the teleomorphs occurs rarely, maybe not at all. Sometimes several anamorphs […]

Sphaeropsidales glossary

Deuteromycetes, subgroup Coelomycetes, that form their spores in a pycnidium. It is an artificial grouping, purely based on the form, not on a systematic relationship.

Melanconiales glossary

Deuteromycetes, subgroup Coelomycetes, that form their spores in an acervulus. It is an artificial grouping, purely based on the form, not on a systematic relationship.

Hyphomycetes glossary

Deuteromycota that form their spores on conidiophores that are not located on or in a fruiting body. It is an artificial grouping, purely based on the form, not on a systematic relationship.

Coelomycetes glossary

Deuteromycetes that releases their spores from a fruiting body, either an acervulus (Melanconiales) or a pycnidium (Sphaeropsidales). It is an artificial grouping, purely based on the form, not on a systematic relationship.

cocoon glossary

Envelope made out of silk (and often other material, in particular frass) protecting a pupa.

cleistothecium glossary

(pl cleistothecia). Fruiting body , ascocarp, of the powdery mildew fungi, Erysiphaceae. They are globular, closed, and contain one or a few asci.

clavate glossary

Clublike.

Chromalveolata glossary

Alternative term for Heterokonta.

chasmothecium glossary

Alternative term for cleistothecium.

chaetotaxy glossary

The arrangement of the setae (“hairs”) in insects. The chaetotaxy is genetically strictly defined. The patterns are characteristic for families, genera and often species. Chaetotaxy especially plays a role in the identification of Lepidoptera larvae, in combination with the placement of the pinacula.

cf glossary

In full: “confer”: compare.

cephalopharyngeal skeleton glossary

The formal term for the cephalic skeleton of Diptera larvae.

callus glossary

Tissue, formed after an injury, consisting of undifferentiated cells.

caeoma glossary

An unusual type of aecium, lacking a peridium.

Malpighian tubule system glossary

Excretion organs, in function comparably with our kidneys. As is indicated by its name, it consists of number of thin tubules in the abdomen.

sheath case glossary

One of the types of case that is distinguished within the family Coleophoridae.

lobe case glossary

One of the types of case that is distinguished within the family Coleophoridae. Coleophora potentillae

composite leaf case glossary

One of the types of case that is distinguished within the family Coleophoridae.

pistol case glossary

One of the types of case that is distinguished within the family Coleophoridae.

seed case glossary

One of the types of case that is distinguished within the family Coleophoridae.

spatulate leaf case glossary

One of the types of case that is distinguished within the family Coleophoridae.

tubular silken case glossary

One of the types of case that is distinguised within the family Coleophoridae.

tubular leaf case glossary

One of the types of case that is distinguised within the family Coleophoridae.

ventral ganglia glossary

The neural system of insects consists of the brain, connected to a ring around the oesophagus, which in turn connects to a ventral strand along the whole of the with swellings, called ganglia, in each of the segments. It often is conspicuous in Nepticulidae larvae Stigmella plagicollella

broadly polyphagous glossary

Living on a number, taxonomically unrelated plant families.

brachyblast glossary

Short lateral branch, like in Larix.

upper-surface mine glossary

Mine that is made in the upper cell layers of the leaf, i.e. the palissade parenchyma.

case glossary

Transportable, tubular or rarely helicoidal structure, made of plant material, silk, rarely detritus, in which a larve lives and walks around, and from which it may make a fleck mine. Most often made byColeophoridae larvae.

boreo-alpine glossary

Said of a species distributed over the more northern parts of Europe, at the same time occurring in the higher mountains.

secondary feeding lines glossary

Arrangement of remnants of green leaf tissue in parallel lines, caused either by the formation of a secondary blotch, or, more typically, by the larva shifting its position while feeding (Hering, 1927a; Hendel, 1928a). Nemorimyza posticata

zoospores glossary

Motile spores, bearing a whiplash flagellum.

coiled frass glossary

Characteristic arrangement of the frass grains, caused by the larva swinging its rear end slowly to and fro while eating, moving and defecating. This behaviour occurs only in some moth species. Stigmella hemargyrella

blotch mine glossary

A mine that is not longer than three times its width; “Platzmine” in the German literature. Opposite to gallery or corridor mine. See also primary and secondary blotch mines.

bivoltine glossary

Life cycle with two generation per year.

binucleate glossary

Said of hyphae cells containing two nuclei. In Basidiomycota almost all hyphae are binucleate. In Ascomycota binucleate hyphae occur only after fusion of two compatible uninucleate hyphen, as a preamble to sexual reproduction. A binucleate tissue is called a dikaryon. It is a unique common character of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, that for this reason are […]

inner mine glossary

After the larva has made a mine in the upper epidermis it makes, within this mine, a new one in the palissade parenchyma. Unique behavious, known only from Phyllonorycter corylifoliella. A somewhat comparable behaviour is seen in the larva of Phytomyza ilicis.

biguttulate glossary

Conidia: with two oil drops.

basidium glossary

(pl basidia). The spore-forming organ of the Basidiomycota on top of which, after meiosis, four spores are formed.

ascus glossary

(pl asci), Sac-like organ characteristic of the major fungus group of Ascomycota. In the asci, after meiosis, (in principle 8) ascospores are formed. Pseudopeziza trifolii: asci, between them sterile paraphyses

ascoma glossary

(pl ascomata). => ascocarp

ascogenous cell glossary

Ascomycota: a cell out of which later an ascus may develop. In Protomyces they are embedded in the galled host tissue. They have a double wall, the outer one conspicuously thickened.

ascocarp glossary

In Ascomycota: Fruiting body of a fungus, in which asci are formed.

appressorium glossary

(pl appresoria). Nipple- or, sometimes lobed, discoid appendages of the hyphae of the powdery mildews (Erysiphaceae), with which they are attached to the epidermis of the host plant. Erysiphe deutziae

apothecium glossary

(pl apothecia). In Ascomycota: A ± dish-shaped organ that bears a layer of asci on top.

apical glossary

Near, or in the direction of, the apex of tip.

posterior glossary

To the rear end; opposite to anterior

anterior glossary

Foremost, in the front; opposite to posterior.

anamorph glossary

The asexual stage in the life cycle of a fungus. Reproduction in this stage takes place mostly by the the production of asexually formed spores, called conidia.

last abdminal feet glossary

The rear pair of prolegs (“abdominal feet”) as they occur in the larvae of sawflies and most moth larvae. They tend to be longer than the other prolegs and may be fused.

anal shield glossary

Strongly chitinised, darker coloured plate on the terminal body segment, like in Tischeria larvae.

amphigenous glossary

At/on both the upperside and the underside of a leaf; especially in parasitic fungi an important character.

aptera glossary

(pl apterae). The wingless stage of aphids; opposite to alata.

alate glossary

(pl altae). The winged stage of aphids; opposite to aptera.

Agromyzinae-type glossary

The posterior part of the cephalic skeleton with three “arms”, which is characteristic for the subfamily Agromyzinae. Agromyza anthtracina: cephalic skeleton

Agromyzidae-type glossary

Cephalic skeleton, typical for for the family Agromyzidae; in particular the anterior arm is simple, quite unlike in the Tephritidae or Drosophilidae. Ophiomyia beckeri larvs: cephalic skeleton

aecium glossary

(pl aecia). The second stage in the life history of rust fungi, Pucciniales. Puccinia poarum: underside of a leaf with aecia characteristically, the spores are produced in a chain only under exceptionally quiet circumstances a picture like this can develop

aecidium glossary

Less often used equivalent for aecium.

prolegs glossary

Larvae of Lepidoptera and Tenthredinidae (sawflies) not only have three pairs of thoracic feet, like all insects, but also several abdominal segments have a pair of appendage that look like feet, and have the same function. Usually they have a row or circle of crochets at their tip. A less formal term for prolegs is […]

acervulus glossary

(pl. acervuli) Fruiting body of a parasitic fungus in the form of a small dish, in which asexual spores, conidia, are formed. It generally is formed just below the plant’s epidermis, that is ruptured when the acervulus is ripe to release its spores.

bivoltine glossary

Two generations per year.