Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Conventions and limitations

which region?

The site covers all Europe, i.e. including European Russia and the Ukraine, Macaronesia, the Mediterranean Islands, the Greek Islands, Cyprus and Turkey. North Africa and the Levant are not within its scope, and are treated only marginally.

which parasites species?

All plant parasites whose activities induce a more or less specific, externally recognisable, reaction, or characteristic damage pattern; and also related species, which may be expected to cause similar reactions or damage, even occasionally, like under high densities. Apart from a few conspicuous mushroom galls, the scope of the site are parasites of seed plants, Spermatophyta.

All parasites?

Parasites are discussed only if a minimum of information is available about the host plant. This means that at least one host plant genus must be known.

which plant species?

All plant genera on which mines have been observed within the geographical scope are included as much as possible. Ornamental and crop plants are not excluded. However plants growing in greenhouses and their parasites are not dealt with.


The nomenclature of animals follows the Fauna Europaea and its successor (PESI), “the Pan-European Species directories Infrastructure”. The naming of fungi as far as possible follows the Index Fungorum. For plants the source is the Euro+Med PlantBase; however, this is not yet completely finished; when necessary the Plant List is used.

Synonyms are mentioned only is far as they play a role in the cited references .


In general, subspecies of parasites are not discussed separately. Because the status of plant subspecies is different and more complex, botanical subspecies are recognised, if they differ from the typical subspecies.

Last modified 11.iii.2021