Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Aconitum

Dichotomous table for gallers on Aconitum

by Hans Roskam

1a On vegetative plant parts => 2

1b Flowers not opening, conspicuously swollen, ± rotund, yellowish-, then bluish-green. Containing several whitish larvae. A. lycoctonum & subsp. vulparia, napellus, variegatum: Contarinia aconitifloris

2a Malformations ± bulging, caused by smut- and rust fungi => 7

2b Malformations caused by animal inducers => 3

3a Malformations caused by aphids or spittlebugs => 4

3b Stem just below the still undeveloped inflorescence ± spindle-shaped, or irregularly barrel-shaped, swollen over a length of 20–35 mm. The increasingly developed, also outside the gall irregularly eaten, pith contains a single or several larvae. A. lycoctonum subsp. vulparia, napellus subsp. lusitanicum: Ranunculiphilus lycoctoni

4a Malformations caused by aphids => 5

4b Large parts of leaf blade strongly deflected, strongly curled, especially close to the froth-covered nymph; dark green. Aconitum spp.: Philaenus spumarius

5a Leaves ± distinctly deflected. Aphids 3–4 mm long => 6

5b Shoot axis stunted. Leaves or flowers apically clustered, ± bent or disfigured. A. x cammarum, lycoctonum & subsp. vulparia, napellus, plicatum, variegatum:
Brachycaudus napelli

6a On A. lycoctonum & ssp. vulparia. Leaves broad and curved downwards, bell-like yellowish spotted: Delphiniobium lycoctoni

6b On blue-flowering species. Leaves only slightly rolled downwards and bent. Aconitum spp.: Delphiniobium junackianum

7a Malformations contain sori of rust fungi => 8

7b Stem, petioles or often leaf undersides often with curved bulges caused by smuts; initially closed, lead-grey translucent; rupturing later on and then with black dusting. Aconitum spp.: Urocystis irregularis

8a Bulges with aecia, accompanied by pycnidia. Fungus host-alternating => 10

8b Swellings with aecia, with or without pycnidia. Fungus not host-alternating => 9

9a Aecia predominantly in larger groups on swellings of sometimes curved leaf veins, -stalks and stems. Peridium dentate at margin, rather large. A. lycoctonum, vulparia: Uromyces dactylidis

9b Aecia in rotund-oval, ± arched sori usually on underside of leaf blades, broad disc-like, with deflected, soon withering and therefore rarely well-developed margin. Spermogonia on both leaf sides. A. lycoctonum & sspp. septentrionale + vulparia, orientale: Uromyces lycoctoni

10a Aecia on Aconitum spp. Underside of leaves with large, rotund, yellow-brown pads; leaf veins, -stalks or stems with distinctly bent or curved bulges, up to 30–40 mm long. Puccinia actaeae-elymi

10b Malformations and aecia like those of Puccinia actaeae-elymi; only occurring on blue-flowering species. A. x cammarum, degenii, napellus, tauricum, variegatum: Puccinia aconiti-rubrae

10c Aecia similar, morphologically not positively distinguishable from previous rust; predominantly on underside of leaf blade in usually rotund, sometimes slightly swollen, discoloured sori. A. x cammarum, lycoctonum & ssp. vulparia, napellus, tauricum, variegatum: Puccinia actaeae-agropyri

Last modified 16.iv.2020