Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Anchusa

Dichotomous table for gallers on Anchusa

(for Anchusa arvensis [= Lycopsis arvensis], see Lycopsis)

by Hans Roskam

1a On flowers or inflorescences => 4

1b On stems and leaves => 2

2a Malformations in rosette or on base of young stem => 3

2b Leaf blade with conspicuous, rotund, yellowish to brown pads or distinctly arched, oblong-oval bulges, arched on underside, upper side ± depressed also on midribs or stalks of leaves as well as on young axial parts; soon bearing aecia and spermogonia. A. azurea, calcarea, capensis, leptophylla, ochroleuca, officinalis, undulata: Puccinia recondita

3a Rosettes additionally branched. All parts greatly shortened, swollen, transformed into a ± compact gall. A. caespitosa: Aphelenchoides fragariae and/or Rhodococcus fascians

3b Young stem parts ± severely stunted, sometimes slightly swollen at base. Containing a yellowish-white caterpillar; head and neck black. Anchusa spp.: Cynaeda dentalis

3c More frequent on Anchusa in inflated leaf mines, later on occasionally also in ± crippled, sometimes gall-like disfigured stems occurs the caterpillar of the very close Epascestria pustulalis

4a Malformations on flowers, without distinct involvement of inflorescence rachis => 6

4b Young inflorescences with shortened axial parts; bracts and flower primordia ± strongly clustered => 5

5a Flowers ± distorted, bracts curled, deflected. A. officinalis: Dictyla echii

5b In sometimes similar malformations on inflorescence with stunted axis, clustered, ± disfigured flowers, curled and curved bracts or also on similarly disfigured vegetative shoots. Anchusa spp.: Philaenus spumarius

5c Flowers distorted, corolla ± greened or leafy; bracts and calyx lobes rolled inwards. A. officinalis: Anthocoptes aspidophorus

6a Flower buds swollen, unopened. Containing many mites. A. officinalis: Unidentified gall mite

6b Similar malformation caused by gall midges. A. officinalis: Unidentified gall midge

Last modified 29.iv.2020