Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Angelica

Dichotomous table for gallers on Angelica

by Hans Roskam

1a On parts above ground => 2

1b Roots with nodule-shaped swellings. A. archangelica, sylvestris: Meloidogyne hapla

2a On inflorescences, flowers or fruits => 16

2b On vegetative plant parts => 3

3a Malformations bearing fructifications of fungi on their surface => 12

3b Malformations caused by animal inducers or by fungi with fructifications inside => 4

4a Malformations mainly on leaf blades => 6

4b Galls mainly on petiole, rachis, or leaf veins => 5

5a Swellings of variable expansion, spongy, pale-green and blunt, ± undulately wrinkled at surface. Containing many eelworms. A. archangelica: Ditylenchus dipsaci

5b Galls compact, glabrous, vitreous. Many spores develop close to vascular bundle. A. archangelica, sylvestris: Protomyces macrosporus

6a Leaf blades curled, rolled, folded or with swellings caused by animal parasites => 7

6b Basal leaves on the underside of leaf blades with many, ± golden-yellow translucent warts, less than 1 mm long; sometimes coalescing, also on leaf rachis. A. sylvestris: Synchytrium aureum

7a Curling or extensive rolling of leaves caused by aphids or cercopids => 10

7b Leaf blades narrowly rolled, or folded or swollen, bladder-like => 8

8a Leaf blade rolled inwards or swollen => 9

8b Leaflets ± pouch-like converging upwards or curved; curled, thickened at base, ± discoloured; the folds contain several white larvae. A. sylvestris: Macrolabis heraclei

9a Leaf blade segments strongly curled, locally swollen, curved downwards at margin; many larvae on underside. A. sylvestris: Trioza apicalis

9b Leaf tips rolled, ± discoloured. A. sylvestris: Unidentified gall mite

10a Malformations caused by aphids => 11

10b Larger parts of leaf blade ± nest- or roll-like converged; strongly curled and deep-green close to the froth-covered nymph. Angelica spp.: Philaenus spumarius

11a Leaf tips at margin usually weakly bent downwards, curled, sometimes slightly discoloured. Aphid black. A. archangelica, sylvestris: Aphis fabae

11b Similar, sometimes more distinct and deep-green, malformations caused by green aphids. A. archangelica, sylvestris: Cavariella archangelicae

12a Malformations bearing yellowish aecia => 14

12b Bulges often only minor; with sori containing brown spores => 13

13a Swellings in the leaf blade ± rotund, on leaf veins, leaf rachis or stem ± spindle-shaped, yellowish margined, bearing 2-celled telia. A. sylvestris: Puccinia karstenii

13b Minor, often conspicuously yellow-margined and coloured swellings on underside of leaf vein or -rachis, bearing spermogonia and soon browned uredinia. A. archangelica, sylvestris and relatives: Puccinia angelicae

14a Fungi living on A. sylvestris => 15

14b Aecia on A. palustris on variously large bulges usually leaning against the venation, arched on underside, upper side ± countersunk and browned: Puccinia rigensis

15a Bulges ± elongated, leaf rachis and stems usually distinct. Aecia clustered, cup-shaped; peridium protruding, deflected, with very regularly arranged, ± orthogonal cells, thickened outside as well as inside. A. sylvestris: Puccinia angelicae-mammillata

15b Bulges rather uniform, sometimes more compact and more strongly arched. Aecia only pustule-, not cup-shaped. Peridium not protruding, opening with a round hole, outer wall distinctly thickened. A. sylvestris: Puccinia bistortae

16a On inflorescences or flowers => 17

16b Ovaries bladder-like inflated, surmounting the umbel. Containing a single orange-red larva. A. archangelica, sylvestris: Kiefferia pericarpiicola

17a Malformations on single- or several flowers; caused by gall midge larvae => 20

17b Galls on stalks of inflorescences or on expanded parts of inflorescence => 18

18a Inflorescence and flowers variously disfigured => 19

18b Centre of umbel- or partial umbel stalk ± swollen, club-shaped or globular; galls one- to several chambered, sometimes also on one or all sides of the stalks of umbels or partial umbels; inner wall covered with mycelium. Containing a red larva. A. archangelica, palustris, sylvestris: Lasioptera carophila

19a Inflorescence, including flowers, variously stunted and disfigured. Stalks of partial umbels shortened, clustered, bearing aphids. A. sylvestris: Unidentified aphid

= Also Cavariella aegopodii and/or C. konoi might cause such malformations

19b Tangle-like accumulation of unopened, slightly thickened flowers, caused by midge larvae. A. sylvestris: Contarinia baggendorfi

20a Flower buds slightly swollen, not opening. Larvae greenish- to lemon-yellow, jumping. A. sylvestris: Diodaulus traili

= according to W.N. Ellis not on Angelica, but only on Pimpinella

20b Galls usually larger than those of previous midge. Calyx, corolla, ovary distinctly enlarged, these sometimes swollen, hood-like. Larva orange-red. A. archangelica, sylvestris: Dasineura angelicae

Last modified 30.iii.2020