Plantparasieten van Europa

bladmineerders, gallen en schimmels

gallers on Astrantia

Dichotomous table for gallers on Astrantia

by Hans Roskam

1a On parts above ground => 2

1b Roots with nodule-shaped swellings. A. carniolica, major: Meloidogyne hapla

2a Malformations with sori of fungi on surface => 4

2b Malformations caused by insects => 3

3a Leaves with ± thickened folds, contain white midge larvae. A. major: Macrolabis sp.

3b Leaves converged downwards, nest-like; curled and dark-green close to the froth-covered nymph on underside. A. carniolica: Philaenus spumarius

4a Leaf veins and-stalk bulging, thickened, distorted. Bulges yellowish, soon bearing brown 2-celled telia. A. major, minor: Puccinia astrantiae

4b Leaf blade with hemispherical swellings which are ± spindle-shaped on leaf veins. Aecia countersunk; peridium not protruding. A. minor: Puccinia polygoni-vivipari

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