Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Bellis

Dichotomous table for gallers on Bellis

by Hans Roskam

1a On above-ground parts => 2

1b Root with small midrib- to nodule-shaped tumifications. B. perennis: Meloidogyne hapla

2a Galls small, wart-, cushion- or callus-shaped; caused by fungi => 4

2b Malformations of irregular dimension caused by animal parasites => 3

3a Petioles or leaf blades with ± extended, spongy, pale green, curled swellings. B. perennis: Ditylenchus dipsaci

3b Leaf margins loosely rolled upwards, partially and locally reddened. B. perennis: Brachycaudus helichrysi

3c Capitula disfigured into a compact mass, roughly spherical with white loose ligules irregularly distributed on the whole surface. Florets replaced each by a small compound flower head of lacerate bracts and ten flowers on average. B. perennis: Unidentified gall mite

3d Hardly modified flower heads contain tephritid larvae, feeding on the developing fruits. B. perennis: Campiglossa producta

4a Galls caused by rust fungi => 5

4b Galls half-spherical, golden yellow translucent; hardly 1 mm long; many on the petioles and undersides of the leaves. B. perennis: Synchytrium aureum

4c Leaves usually with several whitish- or ochre yellow sori, 1–4 mm long, sometimes appearing thickened, spores developing on terminal hyphae inside the galls. B. annua, perennis: Protomycopsis bellidis

= On Bellis the smut fungus Entylomella bellidis, belonging to the Entyloma calendulae species complex occurs more frequently in ± similar, but usually not swollen patches.

5a Leaves yellowed with wavy edges and raised areas, often more erect than usual; petioles distorted by aecia, in 4–11, telia sparsely present on stems later in the year. B. perennis: Puccinia distincta

5b Leaves with copper-coloured areas, spermogonia present, also aecia, situated in a ring at leaf underside. B. annua, perennis, sylvestris: Puccinia obscura

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