Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Bupleurum

Dichotomous table for gallers on Bupleurum

by Hans Roskam

1a On inflorescences or fruits => 5

1b On (terminal) shoots or leaves => 2

2a Galls on stems and shoot tip or distortion of complete shoots => 4

2b Leaves rolled at margin => 3

3a Leaf blade at margin narrowly rolled in; upper side with rotund flat grooves. B. rotundifolium: Unidentified psyllid

3b One or both halves of leaf blade loosely rolled upwards, slightly thickened and brittle; ± discoloured pale-green or violet; the roll contains flat, brown, mainly solitary froth-covered nymphs, white fringed at margins. B. falcatum: Eryngiophaga hungarica and/or Eryngiophaga lautereri

3c Youngest leaves at shoot tip or side shoots rolled in over one another, weakly cartilaginously thickened, pale-green or violet. Gall spindle-shaped, 10–25 mm long, often with its base geniculate, also complete malformation laterally bent outwards. Larvae yellow to orange-red. B. falcatum: Dasineura bupleuri

4a Basal part of stem with broad spindle-shaped, one-sided flattened, curved swelling, contains a froth-covered nymph under an arched scale. B. falcatum: Planchonia arabidis

4b Usually all shoots of plant diseased and pale-green. Shoots already running ahead in early spring, etiolated, often remaining sterile; leaf blades narrowed, at first with many spermogonia on underside, then with abundant aecia. Sori sometimes also occurring on slightly distorted stalks and stems. Bupleurum spp.: Puccinia bupleuri

4c In similar malformations on B. stellatum: Puccinia bupleuri-stellati

5a On bladder-like inflated fruits => 6

5b Centre of (partial) umbel ± swollen, club-shaped; gall sporadically also ± one-sided on stalk of umbel. Contains a red larva. B. falcatum, fruticescens, rigidum, rotundifolium: Lasioptera carophila

6a Inside an orange-red larva. B. falcatum, longifolium, praealtum, ranunculoides: Kiefferia pericarpiicola

6b Several red-yellow, jumping larvae. B. falcatum, longifolium: Parallelodiplosis bupleuri

Last modified 5.v.2020