Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Calendula

Dichotomous table for gallers on Calendula

by Hans Roskam

1a On above-ground parts => 2

1b Roots with many small, nodule-shaped swellings. C. officinalis: Meloidogyne hapla

2a On leaves => 3

2b Enlarged leaves and stems, with transformation of flowers into scaly structures on peduncles up to 20 mm long. Calendula sp.: Unidentified aphid

= The capitula of Calendula arvensis, maderensis are hardened by the tephritid fly Tephritis praecox.

3a Leaf blades of the larger leaves variously curved obliquely downwards or almost rolled; curled close to the dark green site of attack. One froth-covered nymph. Calendula spp.: Philaenus spumarius

3b Leaf blades often with many, rotund, up to 5 (7) mm wide, yellowish-white, later bright brownish spots, occasionally slightly curved over the surface. C. arvensis, officinalis, suffruticosa incl. subsp. fulgida: Entyloma calendulae

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