Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Carlina

Dichotomous table for gallers on Carlina

(incl. Atractylis)

by Hans Roskam

1a In leaves or inflorescences => 3

1b In stem parts => 2

2a Root collar bumpy swollen. C. vulgaris: Ditylenchus dipsaci

2b Stem gall. Spindle-shaped very elongate swelling, 35 x 5 mm. Large thin-walled larval chamber with lateral large round exit hole. A. serratuloides: Unidentified lepidopteran

3a In inflorescences => 5

3b In leaves => 4

4a Leaves at primary veins already in early spring with minor oval swellings, yellowish, up to 0.5 mm with pycnidia on the upper side and areas with primary, cinnamon-brown, dusty uredinia. C. acaulis: Puccinia carlinae

4b Leaf blade transformed into a fleshy tissue, elliptical, about 11 mm high and 5 mm in cross section; surface green, covered with fine white hairs and leaf lobes provided with spines. Large irregular thick fleshy-walled cavity, dark coloured. C. gummifera: Unidentified stem eelworm

4c Leaf blade covered with a thick layer of long whitish hairs. C. gummifera: Aceria carlinae

5a Malformations of receptacle => 6

5b Flowers greened. Excessive branching. C. vulgaris: Cause unidentified – ? gall mite

6a Capitula swollen, hardened, remaining ± closed, with several long oval gall chambers, placed upright on receptacle. One larva per chamber without distinct head capsule. C. vulgaris: Urophora solstitialis

6b Capitula slightly enlarged; the fleshy parts consumed by a larva with a distinct head capsule. C. vulgaris: Larinus planus

6c Similar malformations in greatly hardened receptacles can be caused by caterpillars of Metzneria aestivella subsp. aestivella

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