Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Carthamus

Dichotomous table for gallers on Carthamus

by Hans Roskam

1a On above-ground parts => 2

1b Galls on roots, up to 7 cm deep in the ground, unilocular, sometimes more of them aggregated in groups, forming a root swelling. Carthamus sp.: Phanacis carthami

= Phanacis kiefferi induces galls on roots of C. lanatus.

2a On vegetative parts => 3

2b Capitula swollen, inhabited by tephritid larvae. C. tinctorius: Acanthiophilus helianthi

2c oluminous malformations, inhabited by tephritid larvae. C. lanatus, tinctorius: Unidentified tephritid, cf Urophora solstitialis

2d Capitula slightly swollen and disfigured, contain beetle larva. C. tinctorius: Larinus carinirostris

2e Gall in the involucral bracts, 1‒3 mm large. The wall is smooth, thick and very hard. C. lanatus: Isocolus carthami

3a Stems of young plants swollen at ground level, covered with pycnidia and brown areas of uredinia; developing malformed adventitious roots. C. glaucus, lanatus, oxyacantha, tenuis, tinctorius: Puccinia carthami

3b Leaf blade with round, compact cushions, weakly bulged on the lower side, sometimes weakly countersunk on the upper side. On the nerves round- to oval, usually slightly more swollen; at first yellow, later bearing 2-celled brown telia. C. lanatus, tinctorius: Puccinia verruca

3b Leaves on the underside with a dense white fungal down of erect conidiophores that apically bear a few short branches, each one ending in a conidium. C. tinctorius: Plasmopara carthami

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