Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Echium

Dichotomous table for gallers on Echium

by Hans Roskam

1a On inflorescences, flowers or fruits => 6

1b On vegetative parts => 2

2a On shoot tips, lateral buds, stems or leaves => 3

2b Complete plant stunted, leaves clustered and like flowers ± etiolated. E. vulgare: Brachycaudus helichrysi

3a On leaves, buds or stems => 4

3b Shoot tip stunted close to ground, transformed into an oblong-egg-shaped blotch with large central chamber, not enclosed by unfolding leaves. E. italicum, vulgare: Cynaeda dentalis

3c Gall on root head. E. vulgare: Pachycerus segnis

4a On leaves or buds => 5

4b Stem locally stunted and swollen, with several rimmed depressions containing a nymph. E. vulgare: Planchonia arabidis

5a Lateral buds transformed into an unopened egg-shaped gall, not dropping in autumn. Contains a single yellow larva. E. arenarium, vulgare: Asphondylia echii

5b Leaf blade with conspicuous, rotund, yellow or reddish pads, ± depressed on upper side, arched on underside or similar, elongated spindle-shaped bulges on venation. E. plantagineum, vulgare: Puccinia recondita f. sp. echii-agropyrina

6a On inflorescences, flowers => 7

6b One of the mericarps enlarged; the remaining ones aborted. Containing a single larva. E. vulgare: ? gall midge, ? gall wasp

7a Expanded parts of inflorescence disfigured => 9

7b Malformations of single or several flowers => 8

8a Corolla unopened, not or hardly surpassing calyx teeth; lower half swollen, thickened, white; upper half acuminate, thickened and reddish. Stamens and ovary thickened. Larvae glossy, lemon-yellow, jumping. E. vulgare: Contarinia echii

8b Flower swollen, unopened, gall rotund-oval. Stamens and pistil aborted. Inner wall lined with mycelium. Containing a single larva. E. arenarium, vulgare: Asphondylia echii

9a Many flowers disfigured, their parts variously leafy, abnormally pubescent. E. vulgare: Aceria echii

9b Inflorescences shortened. Flowers distorted. E. vulgare: Dictyla echii

9b Axis of inflorescence stunted and clustering of flowers of E. vulgare caused by froth-covered nymphs of Philaenus spumarius

Last modified 17.iv.2020