Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Falcaria

Dichotomous table for gallers on Falcaria vulgaris

by Hans Roskam

1a Malformations on leaves => 3

1b On inflorescence and in flowers => 2

2a Centre of (partial) umbel swollen, globular or club-shaped; gall mostly uni-, also multi-chambered, each containing a red larva. Lasioptera carophila

2b Fruit strongly swollen, often reddened; protruding above the umbel. Containing a single orange-red larva. Kiefferia pericarpiicola

3a Malformations caused by animals => 4

3b Leaves rigidly erect, longer stalked than normal ones; leaf blades pale, narrower, sometimes curved and twisted, usually bearing spermogonia over whole surface and aecia on underside. Puccinia sii-falcariae

4a Malformations with conspicuous curling and distortion of the leaf blade => 5

4b Irregular thickenings, up to about 10 mm long, pale, wrinkled, often variously curved, often radiating from the midrib ± into the leaf blade; sometimes arranged into several rows. Ditylenchus dipsaci

4c About 8–15 mm long, broad spindle-shaped, strongly bent, glabrous swellings on petioles or midribs of leaves. On the inside of the curving is a depression containing the causer. Planchonia arabidis

5a Leaf sheaths swollen, belly-like, ± bulging, simultaneously often curling and twisting of leaf blades caused by yellowish aphids. Ammiaphis sii

5b Leaf blade strongly deflected, undulately curled, sometimes converging, nest-like. Philaenus spumarius

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