Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Ficus

Dichotomous table for gallers on Ficus

by Hans Roskam

1a On parts above ground => 2

1b Nodular swellings on roots. F. carica: Meloidogyne hapla

2a Malformations of leaf blade => 4

2b Small glossy galls inside fig fruit => 3

2c ranch cankers. F. carica: Phomopsis cinerascens

3a On F. carica, cordata subsp. salicifolia, palmata, sycomorus: Blastophaga psenes

3b On F. sur: Blastophaga occultiventris

3c Terminal part of young shoots stunted; leaves folded upwards and transformed into irregular pods the margins of which touch at several places; both of the leaf blade halves may be rolled completely up to the midrib and form a succulent, brittle cylinder. External surface reddish with many reddish spots, ± coalescing if severely infected. F. elastica, benjamina, microcarpa: Gynaikothrips ficorum

3d Female florets within the fig, develop into a small, globular shining gall. F. ? benjamina, microcarpa: Eupristina verticillata

= Three more fig wasp species have been recorded in florets of syconia, viz., Blastophaga psenes, Odontofroggatia galili and Pleistodontes sp.

4a Half-globular swellings, protruding on upperside of leaf, with corresponding depression on underside, 1–2 mm across. F. sycomorus: Aleyrodes sp.

4b Leaf blade rolled upwards, along midrib, with small reddish elevations scattered on underside, and corresponding depressions on the other side. F. benjamina: Unidentified gall mite

= On F. carica the gall mite Aceria ficus causes injuries of fig buds and rolls of leaf margin and cause leaf chlorosis, rusting, bronzing and distortion, causing in premature leaf drop. The mite is involved in vectoring the ficus mosaic disease agent

4c Conspicuous leaf galls caused by thrips. F. elastica, benjamina, microcarpa: Gynaikothrips ficorum

4d Irregular, hairless swelling of the leaf, about equally protruding at both faces, ± a cm in diameter, often several coalesced in blister galls, usually considerably extended over leaf surface. Caused by fig wasps. F. microcarpa: Josephiella microcarpae

4e Small discoloured leaf galls, mature galls become thick and brown. F. benjamina, microcarpa: Horidiplosis ficifolii

Last modified 10.vii.2020