Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Hippocrepis

Dichotomous table for gallers on Hippocrepis

by Hans Roskam

1a On parts above ground => 2

1b Roots with rotund to cylindrical nodules, occasionally branched in terminal half. H. comosa: Rhizobium leguminosarum

2a On flowers or fruits => 9

2b On shoot axis or leaves => 3

3a Galls on leaflets => 5

3b Leaves and stems with small, wart-shaped fungus galls, hardly 1 mm long, usually many, sometimes coalescing into crusts => 4

4a Galls wart-shaped, semi-globular. The apical sunken nutritive cell, and also to a lesser extent the neighbouring cells, greatly enlarged. H. comosa: Synchytrium aureum

4b Similar infestation, but more bulging than wart-like. Nutritive cells conspicuously enlarged. Galls developing without strong multiplication of inconspicuously enlarged adventitious cells. H. comosa: Synchytrium alpicola

5a Disfigured leaflets caused by insects => 6

5b Gall cavity lined with mycelium. Leaf axil with bud-like gall, mainly arising from the fleshy thickened lower part of petiole and enlarged stipules. Inner wall with mycelium. Containing a single larva. H. emerus: Asphondylia coronillae

5c Leaflets folded upwards over their length and ± curved, lacking conspicuous thickenings. H. comosa: Unidentified gall mite

6a Leaflets swollen => 7

6b Leaf rolled up and/or twisted, reddish coloured; containing glossy, yellowish, jumping midge larvae. H. emerus & subsp. emeroides: Contarinia istriana

7a Swollen leaflets caused by midge larvae l;acking sclerotised mouth parts => 8

7b Strongly thickened, pod-like folded leaflets are largely coalesced along their margins. Never all leaflets infected. Caused by beetle larvae with sclerotised mouth parts. H. comosa: ? Tychius sp.

8a All leaflets of young leaves usually form a fleshy swollen, pod-like gall, the margins of the leaflets remaining free. On affected older leaves only some leaflets are infected, with the galls adjacent to ungalled leaflets or are only fleshy and rolled inwards. Larvae pale- to orange-yellow, dull, not jumping. H. comosa: Dasineura comosae

8b Similar galls on H. rupestris. Larvae dull, not jumping: Macrolabis hippocrepidis

8c Leaflets pod-like swollen. Larvae glossy and jumping. H. emerus & subsp. emeroides: Contarinia coronillae

9a Flower buds swollen, dirty-grey discoloured, unopened. Larvae red. H. comosa: Dasineura geisenheyneri

9b The hardly lobed fruit is irregularly bulging and swollen, up to 4 mm thick at its tip. H. comosa: Asphondylia sp.

9c Pod with small, pale green swelling, which retains its colour during browning of fruits. Containing a single larva. H. comosa: Tychius elegantulus

Last modified 14.v.2020