Plantparasieten van Europa

bladmineerders, gallen en schimmels

gallers on Hypericum

Dichotomous table for gallers on Hypericum

by Hans Roskam

1a On above-ground parts => 3

1b On subterranean parts => 2

2a Subterranean buds unopened, egg-shaped, consisting of succulent, yellowish, ± lanceolate scales. Containing 2–5 larvae per gall. H. maculatum, perforatum, pulchrum: Geocrypta braueri

2b oots with nodular to spindle-shaped swellings. H. calycinum: Meloidogyne hapla

3a Terminally on vegetative shoots, on leaves, inflorescences or flowers => 4

3b Axial part of shoot with irregular swellings, bearing single or several rimmed depressions and each containing a flat froth-covered nymph. H. perforatum, pulchrum: Planchonia arabidis

4a On inflorescences or flowers => 14

4b On vegetative parts => 5

5a On leaves => 11

5b Terminally on shoots => 6

6a Galls of ± definite shape on terminal buds of side- and main shoots => 8

6b Expanded malformations of undefined shape terminally on shoots => 7

7a Complete plant ± stunted, sometimes dwarfed with excessive branching; leaves narrower, more acute and densely arranged, pale; glands ± disfigured. H. perforatum: Cause unknown – ? gall mite

7b Shoot axis variously stunted, locally ± buckled, partially intensive green. Hypericum spp.: Philaenus spumarius

8a Galls tuft-like or acuminated,-cylindrical => 9

8b Galls ± globose, usually reddish, consisting of the terminal, distinctly shortened and widened, completely galled pair of leaves. Containing several reddish-yellow to red larvae. Hypericum spp.: Zeuxidiplosis giardi

9a Caused by gall midges => 10

9b Small tufts of leaves, caused by aphids; accompanied by excessive leafiness and distortion of stem. Hypericum spp.: Aphis chloris

10a Several terminal leaves imbricated clustered, tuft- or bud-like. Gall rotund in outline, leaves erect, keel-shaped, basally ± strongly thickened, sometimes yellowish or reddish; apical part often hardly changed. Containing several, at first white, later on pale to darker red coloured larvae. Hypericum spp.: Dasineura hyperici

10b Both terminal leaf pairs remain closed together and form a pointed-cylindrical gall, ± bilaterally symmetrical in cross-section, often reddened, hollow inside. Containing several white to yellowish larvae. Hypericum spp.: Dasineura serotina

11a Malformations of complete leaf blade caused by animals => 12

11b Leaf blade with ± many, yellow translucent many-celled warts, less than 1 mm long, variously joined; also on stem parts. H. perforatum: Synchytrium aureum

12a The additionally variously disfigured leaves are rolled at margin => 13

12b Veins of the discoloured and disfigured leaf are thickened and undulating. H. perforatum: Unidentified gall mite

13a Leaves curled, upwardly rolled; containing a single white midge larva. H. maculatum, perforatum: Unidentified gall midge

13b Leaf blade strongly wrinkled and ± folded, with downward roll of leaf margin. H. hirsutum, maculatum, montanum, perforatum: Aculus hyperici

13c Tight downward roll of leaf margin; roll more pubescent than the rest of the leaf blade, containing several white larvae. H. hirsutum, perforatum: Macrolabis marteli

14a Galls on single flowers => 15

14b Flowers clustered, ±, greened; bracts irregularly curled and rolled inwards; small leafy shoots are often clustered and bushy. H. maculatum, perforatum: Unidentified gall mite

15a Flower buds unopened. Galls rotund; caused by gall midges => 16

15b Corolla leaves unopened, developing into an acuminate gall, in longitudinal direction ± flattened, later on brown striate. Containing a single caterpillar. H. hirsutum, perforatum: Lathronympha strigana

16a Buds swollen, reddened; containing several white larvae. Hypericum spp.: Dasineura serotina

16b Buds especially swollen at base; from wide base short acuminate; ± striate and reddened. Containing white, jumping larvae. H. maculatum, perforatum: Contarinia hyperici

Laatste bewerking 8.iv.2020