Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Lunaria

Dichotomous table for gallers on Lunaria

by Hans Roskam

1a On parts above ground => 3

1b On roots or root collar => 2

2a Irregular cylindrical, usually swelling on all sides, of variable length, on side roots and younger parts of main root. L. annua, rediviva: Plasmodiophora brassicae

2b Globular galls on root collar, with central larval chamber. L. annua, rediviva: Ceutorhynchus assimilis

3a On flowers or fruits => 9

3b On vegetative parts => 4

4a Malformations caused by animals => 6

4b Malformations caused by fungi => 5

5a Sori at first closed, glossy, porcelain-like, the conidia later develop on basal conidiophores in rows on rupturing, dusty pads. L. annua, rediviva: Albugo candida

5b Sori dull, conidia on branched conidiophores. L. annua, rediviva: Hyaloperonospora lunariae

6a Malformations caused by external plant feeders, aphids or spittlebugs => 8

6b Causers inside malformations; larvae of weevils => 7

7a Up to about 15 mm long, rotund to flattened spindle-shaped galls, also deep green inside with central larval chamber, on midrib, also petioles; occasionally on younger stem parts. Containing a single larva. L. annua: Ceutorhynchus chalybaeus

7b The shorter petioles of higher leaves as well as the lower part of the midrib are ± conspicuously deflected; inside are translucent, dark feeding tunnels, with wall cells often regenerating, causing swelling of the organs and sometimes even rupture. Containing a single beetle larva. L. annua: Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus

8a Leaf blades rolled- or deflected, almost nest-like. On main venation close to the froth-covered nymph curled and darker green than the parts towards leaf blade margin. L. annua, rediviva: Philaenus spumarius

8b Malformation of several, incompletely unfolded leaves on shoot tips, caused by mealy powdered grey-green aphids. L. annua, rediviva: Brevicoryne brassicae

9a Flowers thickened, unopened. L. annua: Contarinia nasturtii

9b Siliques severely disfigured, slightly discoloured, warty and bulging; seeds aborted. L. annua: Brevicoryne brassicae

Last modified 8.v.2020