Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Lupinus

Dichotomous table for gallers on Lupinus

by Hans Roskam

1a On parts above ground => 5

1b On roots => 2

2a Outside of root hardly changed, only disfigured inside or with rotund galls having central chamber => 4

2b Distinctly protruding galls, larval chamber absent => 3

3a Nodular galls, occupying all sides of root body. Lupinus spp.: Meloidogyne hapla

3b Main roots with protrusions up to about 15 mm long, broadly attached, usually many, often clumped close to root collar, coalescing, tuberculate, on perennial species even up to 50 mm wide; less often rotund or oblong-oval smaller nodules also on the adventitious roots. Lupinus spp.: Rhizobium lupini

4a Galls not recognisable from the outside; with giant cells inside. Lupinus spp.: Heterodera schachtii

4b Roots with rotund, 4–6 mm long gall with chamber containing beetle larva. L. luteus: Unknown snout beetle

5a Malformations of leaves, stems and flowers => 6

5b Pod disfigured, slightly atrophied; inner wall with mycelium. Containing a single larva. L. albus: Asphondylia lupini

6a Malformations caused by aphids => 7

6b Development of plant severely stunted; axial parts irregularly swollen, spongy. Infestation often encroaching onto stalk and venation of severely disfigured leaves. L. angustifolius: Ditylenchus dipsaci

7a Apterae are pale bluish-grey-green, dusted with white wax; body length 3.2‒5.1 mm. Alatae have a brown pterothorax. Lupinus spp.: Macrosiphum albifrons

7b Apterae and alatae black. Leaf blades distorted, also strongly curved, rolled or folded. L. angustifolius, luteus: Aphis fabae

Last modified 21.v.2020