Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Phlomis

Dichotomous table for gallers on Phlomis

by Hans Roskam

1a On parts above ground => 2

1b Roots with nodular swellings. P. tuberosa: Meloidogyne hapla

2a Leaf blades, stalks or stems with fruiting bodies of rust fungi or leaf blades with erinea => 9

2b Galls caused by insect larvae => 3

3a Galls on vegetative parts => 4

3b Galls caused on inflorescences and flowers. Flower heads contain gall wasp larvae. P. tuberosa: Aulacidea dyakonchukae

= As causer of flower galls, one more gall wasp has been described for P. tuberosa, namely Vetustia investigata

= The gall wasp Panteliella bicolor causes on P. tuberosa outwardly inconspicuously disfigured stems

4a Leaf galls => 6

4b Stem galls caused by cynipid larvae => 5

5a The empty inside of the stem is filled up with monolocular, thin-walled, white, rounded galls, up to 2 mm in diameter. P. tuberosa: Aulacidea phlomica

5b Similar stem gall without externally visible malformation. P. tuberosa: Phanacis phlomidis

6a Leaf galls contain gall midge larvae lacking conspicuous mouth parts => 8

6b Leaf galls contain gall wasp larvae with conspicuous mandibles => 7

7a Leaf blade on upper side with globular, 2–3.5 mm long galls; covered with long, white hairs; on underside conspicuous as small tuft. Containing a single larva. P. tuberosa: Panteliella fedtschenkoi

7b Veins with yellow to brown, spindle-shaped, 1–3 mm long swellings; two larval chambers per gall each containing a single larva. P. tuberosa: Panteliella sp.

8a Subglobular gall, 3–5 mm across, protruding equally on both sides of leaf blade, often close to margin, which is incised; sometimes on petiole, rarely on stem. One-chambered, thin walled. P. cretica, fruticosa, tuberosa: Asphondylia phlomidis

8b Flat irregular pustules on leaves, 3-4 mm in diameter, on the upperside slightly greener than the remaining part of the leaf, on the lower side of the leaf with a slightly hypertrophied epidermis and a partly swollen vein; inside each gall is a chamber where two to four larvae develop together. Usually four to six galls develop on one leaf but up to sixty galls were found on one leaf. In such cases the galls are joined, forming a large irregular pustule with several separated chambers. Larvae pupate in galls, each larva in a white cocoon. P. fruticosa: Phlomidiomyia pustularis

9a Galls with fruiting bodies of fungi on surface => 10

9b Leaf underside with erinea, infestations ± arched. P. tuberosa: Unidentified gall mite

= Similar galls, caused by unidentified gall mites, have been described for P. samia and P. herba-venti subsp. pungens

= The gall mite Aceria onychia causes abnormally hairy disfigured parts on Phlomis fruticosa, tuberosa

10a Up to 10 mm broad, yellow, rotund sori, protruding on underside bearing aecia, on upperside ± depressed pads with spermogonia or ± elongated bulges on main venation, on petioles and young stems. P. tuberosa: Puccinia stipina

10b Aecia on underside, especially on expanded parts or on complete leaf blade; sori occasionally also on petioles and stems, weakly disfiguring the infected organs. Phlomis spp.: Puccinia phlomidis

Last modified 15.iii.2022