Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Phyteuma

Dichotomous table for gallers on Phyteuma

(inc. Asyneuma)

by Hans Roskam

1a On inflorescences, bearing flowers or fruits => 6

1b On vegetative organs => 2

2a On axial parts of shoots => 5

2b On leaves => 3

3a Malformations on leaf blade or spindle-shaped swellings on stems => 4

3b Wart-shaped many-celled galls, less than 1 mm long, on leaf blades, more rarely on petioles. P. hemisphaericum: Synchytrium vulgatum

4a More or less expanded malformations on leaves, occasionally also on stems, caused by only telia developing rust fungi. Leaves of usually systemically infected plants grow more erect and develop faster; they exhibit an abnormal shape of leaf blades, are longer stalked than healthy ones and large parts of underside are covered with rather densely arranged dark-brown telia. Phyteuma spp.: Uromyces phyteumatum

4b Rather loosely arranged aecia on leaf underside of large parts of sometimes long stalked, etiolated leaf blades; exceptionally also densely arranged on longer, slightly spindle-shaped swellings of leaf veins, -stalks and stems. Phyteuma spp.: Puccinella caricis-sempervirentis

5a Shoot axis with successive lobular constricted swellings on twigs. P. spicatum: ? gall midge, pteromalid wasp

5b Shoot axis in the middle or in upper part swollen like rope of pearls. Gall chambers alternating, each containing a single larva. P. orbiculare: ? gall midge, gall wasp

6a Malformations mainly of flowers or their parts => 7

6b Inflorescence shortened and thickened. P. spicatum: Unidentified lepidopteran

7a Flowers or their ovaries strongly swollen => 8

7b Flowers disfigured, their parts variously greened or leafy. P. limonifolium: Aculus schmardae

7c lowers abnormally hairy, greened, leafy. Asyneuma [= Podanthum] canescens, limonifolium: Aculus podanthi

8a Corolla strongly swollen, bladder-like, unopened, inside at base with involute hairs, with several orange-coloured larvae in between. Often on several flowers of an inflorescence. Phyteuma spp.: Dasineura phyteumatis

8b Strongly swollen ovaries associated with other malformations usually on many flowers in a spike. Phyteuma spp.: Miarus campanulae

Last modified 27.iv.2020