Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Salvia

Dichotomous table for gallers on Salvia

by Hans Roskam

1a On parts above ground => 2

1b Roots with small whitish swellings, ± cylindrical-spindle-shaped. Salvia spp.: Meloidogyne hapla

1c Conspicuous tuberculate proliferations, mainly on root collar. Salvia spp.: Agrobacterium tumefaciens

2a On flowers or fruits => 9

2b On axial parts or leaves => 3

3a On leaf blades and -stalks, sometimes on stem parts => 4

3b Multilocular swelling of the stem, 10‒45 mm long and 8‒17 mm in diameter. The oval gall chambers are arranged at the outside, ± perpendicular to the wall. The young gall is yellowish green with a felty surface, in the end it is grey and lignified. S. fruticosa, syriaca: Hedickiana levantina

3c Stem distinctly swollen, sometimes distorted; with single or several oval, rimmed, groove-like depressions, in the cavities on underside containing the causer. S. x sylvestris, verticillata: Planchonia arabidis

4a Malformations on leaf blades, -stalks or stems caused by fungi => 7

4b Swellings, folds, curls or abnormal pubescence on leaves caused by animals => 5

5a Malformations caused by aphids => 6

5b Leaf blade with many pubescent ± reddened protrusions of variable size; dense, at first whitish, later on brownish erinea consisting of rigid, simple or branched hairs in the cavities on underside. Sometimes expanded erinea; also on leaf upperside; erineum sometimes encroaching into petiole and stem parts. Salvia spp.: Aceria salviae

6a Leaves folded, sometimes rolled at margin. S. officinalis: Brachycaudus cardui

6b Leaves pale-green spotted, swollen, bladder-like between the veins. S. nemorosa, officinalis, splendens: Aulacorthum solani

7a Swellings with aecia, sometimes associated with other spore forms => 8

7b Leaf blade with small, isolated pads, protruding on underside, sometimes slightly depressed on upperside, ± wart-shaped, bearing exclusively cinnamon- or chestnut-brown telia. S. aethiopis, dumetorum, limbata, nemorosa, nutans: Puccinia stipina

7c Upperside of the leaf with angular, eventually brown leaf spots. Underside with a thin, greyish purple to light brown fungal down of erect conidiophores that apically several times are dichotomously branching, each branch ending in a globular conidium. S. farinacea, officinalis, pratensis, purpurea, verticillata: Peronospora salviae-officinalis

8a Fungus host-specific. Sori often yellowish to reddish bordered, sometimes occurring on the leaf blades, there rotund, on underside ± bladder-like, arched; mainly oblong on veins and stalks, galls in that case variously distorted; with spermogonia and densely arranged, slightly protruding, irregularly opened, at margin lacerate aecia. Outer- and inner wall of peridium cells are thickened. S. judaica, x sylvestris, verticillata & subsp. amasiaca, virgata: Puccinia nigrescens

8b Only aecia with spermogonia on ± expanded, often curved, yellowish bulges on leaf veins and -stalks, occasionally on young axial parts, The cells of the peridium have thin inner walls. Salvia spp.: Puccinia stipina

9a Galls on flowers or flower parts => 10

9b Single or all four mericarps of a flower irregularly swollen, rotund, up to 5 mm long, multi-chambered, ± enveloped by calyx. Each chamber containing a single larva. Salvia spp.: Neaylax salviae

10a Flower galls caused by insects => 11

10b Malformations caused by fungi. Anthers already ± swollen in unopened flowers, globular and soon containing violet spores. Corolla with anthers dropping early. Development of fruit normal. S. pratensis: Microbotryum salviae

11a Galls caused by gall midges => 12

11b Gall caused by gall wasps, at the base of the flower head, rounded, monolocular, thin-walled, 4.0‒6.0 mm in diameter. 2‒3, sometimes more galls are developing. Salvia spp.: Neaylax salviae

12a Flowers remaining unopened. Calyx inflated and discoloured. Containing several flesh-red larvae. S. pratensis, x sylvestris, verticillata: Dasineura salviae

12b Swollen flower buds, contain orange coloured gall midge larvae. S. nemorosa: Asphondylia sp.

Last modified 15.iii.2022