Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Smyrnium

Dichotomous table for gallers on Smyrnium

by Hans Roskam

1a Galls caused by gall midges => 2

1b Malformations caused by fungi. Rotund, mainly protruding on underside, upperside ± depressed pads on leaf blades, or acuminate rotund- to oblong-oval aecia and spermogonia bearing bulges on leaf midrib, -stalk, stems and sporadically even on stalks of umbels and fruits. S. apiifolium, cordifolium, olusatrum, orphanidis, perfoliatum & subsp. rotundifolium: Puccinia smyrnii

2a Galls in umbellules and fruits, inside wall lined with mycelium. S. orphanidis, perfoliatum subsp. rotundifolium: Lasioptera carophila

2b Fruit conspicuously swollen, ± reddened, often protruding above the partial umbel. Containing a single orange-red larva. S. olusatrum: Kiefferia pericarpiicola

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