Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Torilis

Dichotomous table for gallers on Torilis

by Hans Roskam

1a Malformations on inflorescences or their parts, or fruit galls => 7

1b Malformations on leaves or stems => 2

2a Leaves with expanded malformations => 4

2b Vitreous bulges or pads bearing fruiting bodies on leaves, -stalks, or on stems => 3

3a Spindle-shaped, vitreous bulges on basal stem part, on petioles, midrib and leaf veins. T. japonica: Protomyces macrosporus

3b Bulges yellowish, soon bearing aecia, on the axis of leaves, also on younger stem parts. T. arvensis & subsp. neglecta, japonica, nodosa: Uromyces lineolatus

3c T. japonica has furthermore been indicated as host for Puccinia chaerophylli

4a Malformations caused by aphids or spittlebugs => 5

4b Tip of leaflets variously rolled or strongly curled. T. arvensis, japonica: Aceria peucedani

5a Malformations caused by aphids => 6

5b Main- and side midrib, together with ± curled leaflets, strongly deflected; usually with several similarly disfigured leaves changed into a nest-like cluster. T. arvensis, japonica: Philaenus spumarius

6a ip of leaflet at first with small, upwardly open folds; causer also in ± swollen leaf sheaths. The side shoots that develop later in these sheaths curled; the umbels ± greened and/or leafy. T. arvensis, japonica: Hyadaphis foeniculi

6b Leaflets densely clustered on ± shortened midrib, disfigured; leaf blades irregularly deflected, twisted, curled and ± bulging. T. arvensis, japonica: Semiaphis anthrisci

7a Extensive malformations on inflorescences => 9

7b Localised galls on fruits or stalks of inflorescences => 8

8a Centre of umbel or stalk of umbel ± swollen, club-shaped. Inner wall, rough, covered with mycelium. Containing a single red larva. T. japonica: Lasioptera carophila

8b Fruit inflated, bladder-like; ± globular or flattened on one side, oblong-oval. Gall thin-walled sometimes reddened, protruding above the umbel. Containing 1 (–3) orange-red larvae. T. japonica: Kiefferia pericarpiicola

9a (Partial) umbels severely stunted; ± ball-like clustered; aphid galls => 10

9b Flowers in umbel clustered with umbel stalk often little stunted, variously leafy or only partially greened. T. arvensis, japonica: Aceria peucedani

10a Stalks of umbels and flowers often variously stunted, resulting in irregularly stunted parts. Flower bud disfigured, often mostly greened or even leafy. T. arvensis, japonica: Semiaphis anthrisci

10b Similar malformations. T. japonica: Cavariella pastinacae

Last modified 28.iv.2020