Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Valeriana

Dichotomous table for gallers on Valeriana

by Hans Roskam

1a On parts above ground => 2

1b Roots with nodular, club- or spindle-shaped slender swellings, a few mm long, which bear side roots. V. excelsa subsp. sambucifolia, officinalis: Meloidogyne hapla

2a On flowers or inflorescences => 10

2b On leaves and stems => 3

3a Malformations bearing sori => 9

3b Malformations lacking sori on outside => 4

4a Galls on leaves, sometimes encroaching onto stem parts => 5

4b Shoot axis stunted. Leaves variously deflected, curled, locally deep green. Infected inflorescences ± clustered, ball-like. The froth-covered nymph occurs also on single, similarly disfigured leaves. Valeriana spp.: Philaenus spumarius

4c Stem swollen. V. officinalis: Ditylenchus dipsaci

5a Leaves rolled inwards, frayed or curled => 6

5b Many multicellular warts, less than 1 mm long, at first golden-yellow, later on ± browned, on leaf blades, -stalks and basal stem parts. Sometimes coalescing, crust- or ridge-like, additionally disfiguring the infected parts. V. dioica, montana, officinalis: Synchytrium aureum

6a Leaf blades slightly rolled inwards => 8

6b Leaf blades otherwise ± severely disfigured => 7

7a Tips of leaves sometimes excessively deeply dentate or frayed, rolled upwards or twisted, discoloured, sometimes abnormally haired. V. dioica, montana, tripteris: Unidentified gall mite

7b Leaf tips converging and curled, inflated, twisted, thickened and discoloured. Containing single to several white jumping larvae. V. excelsa subsp. sambucifolia, montana, officinalis, tripteris: Contarinia crispans

8a Leaf blade loosely rolled. V. tripteris: Unidentified psyllid

8b Leaf blade loosely rolled inwards, black aphids on underside. Valeriana spp.: Aphis fabae

9a Distinct swellings, ± yellowish, sometimes curved, up to 15 (20) mm long, often yellowish margined on leaf veins, -stalks or stems, bearing irregularly or circularly arranged aecia, as well as spermogonia. Valeriana spp.: Uromyces valerianae

9b Aecia in coherent, expanded sori on slightly thickened, sometimes ± distorted, occasionally discoloured pads, which may, depending on condition of organ, measure up to 10 cm. The teliospores also soon develop in the same sori. II absent. Sori on leaf blades, -midrib and -stalks, on axial parts of shoot and inflorescence, also occurring on bracts and calyx. V. excelsa & subsp. sambucifolia, montana, officinalis, procurrens, tripteris: Puccinia commutata

10a Flowers leafy or greened (phyllanthy) => 11

10b Axial parts of inflorescence ± stunted. Flowers sometimes densely gathered together, unopened and infertile. Containing several, white to ivory jumping larvae. V. excelsa & subsp. sambucifolia, officinalis & subsp. collina: Contarinia valerianae

11a On V. dioica, montana, tripteris => 12

11b On V. officinalis. Axial parts of inflorescence shortened; flowers irregularly clustered, ball-like. Calyx hardly changed; inner flower parts variously leafy. V. doica, officinalis. Aceria macrotuberculata

12a On V. montana. Flowers disfigured, ± greened or double. Unidentified gall mite

12b Flowers leafy. All parts transformed into green, hairy small leaves. Often excessively branched. Bracts ± disfigured. Flowers double if weakly infected; calyx and corolla greened; stamens and ovaries corolla-like. V. dioica, tripteris: Unidentified gall mite

Last modified 24.iv.2020