Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on Vincetoxicum

Dichotomous table for gallers on Vincetoxicum hirundinaria

by Hans Roskam

1a On flowers or fruits => 4

1b On vegetative organs => 2

2a Leaf blades converging, distorted or curled => 3

2b Leaf margin narrowly rolled upwards, more rarely downwards, discoloured.
Unidentified gall mite

3a Young axis locally stunted; several leaves clustered, converging, ± nest-like. Leaf blades curled, deep green close to the froth-covered nymph. Philaenus spumarius

3b Leaf blades slightly clustered, curved and distorted. Inducer unknown – ? insect

4a On fruits; malformations facultative, usually minor => 5

4b Flower buds enlarged, cartilaginously thickened; ± reddish; later on rupturing, with thick, short lobes. Containing white to yellowish, jumping larva. Contarinia vincetoxici

5a Fruit slightly swollen; often hardly changed, sometimes ± wrinkled and discoloured. Containing several slender, white, jumping larvae. Contarinia asclepiadis

5b Fruit swollen, sometimes curved, ± yellowish, reddish or violet. Containing many cylindrical larvae. Euphranta connexa

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