Category Archives: [:en]parasite[:nl]parasiet[:]

Clepsis spectrana

Clepsis spectrana (Treitschke, 1830)

straw-coloured tortrix, cyclamen tortrix

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Acer pseudoplatanus; Artemisia maritima, vulgaris; Begonia; Betula; Capsicum annuum; Centaurea; Chamerion angustifolium; Cicuta virosa; Comarum palustre; Cyclamen; Dianthus; Epilobium hirsutum, palustre; Euphorbia palustris; Filipendula ulmaria; Fragaria ananassa; Gerbera; Glyceria maxima; Humulus lupulus; Ilex aquifolium; Iris pseudacorus; Kalanchoe; Lilium candidum; Limonium vulgare; Lysimachia; Pelargonium; Petasites hybridus; Phragmites australis; Picea sitchensis; Populus; Pyrus; Quercus; Rhododendron; Ribes nigrum; Rorippa palustris; Rosa; Rubus fruticosus, idaeus; Rumex; Salicornia; Salix x fragilis; Schoenoplectus lacustris; Scirpus sylvaticus; Symphytum officinale; Syringa; Tripolium pannonicum; Urtica dioica; Viola; Vitis vinifera.

phenology

Bivoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek,

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cacoecia, Clepsis, costana auctorum.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a), Triberti, Longo Turri, Adami & Zanetti (2017a), Wegner (2010a).

Clepsis pallidana

Clepsis pallidana (Fabricius, 1776)

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Artemisia campestris; Aster; Bupleurum falcatum; Daucus carota; Euphorbia; Filipendula ulmaria; Gnaphalium; Helichrysum; Jurinea; Lactuca serriola; Leucanthemum; Pilosella officinarum; Sedum; Solidago; Teucrium montanum; Urtica; Verbascum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek,

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cacoecia, Clepsis, strigana (Hubner, 1799).

references

Disqué (1905a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Firmothrips firmus

Firmothrips firmus (Uzel, 1895)

on Vicia

parasite

The thrips live dispersed over the plant, concentrating in folds, leaf axils etc. Their suction activities leads to stunting of the entire plant; leaves remain small, are conroted, locally discoloured.

host plants

Fabaceae, monophagous

Vicia cracca, hirsuta, pannonica, sativa, sparsifolia, tenuifolia, tetrasperma.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Buhr (1965a), Lambinon Schneider & Feitz (2012a), Ravazzi (0000a), Roskam (2009a, 2019a), Tomasi (2014a.

Xyela menelaus

Xyela menelaus Benson, 1960

on Pinus

parasite

The larvae develop in a completely closed male inflorescence, feeding on the pollen. Pupation in a cocoon in the soil.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Pinus nigra & subsp. pallasiana.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Blank (2002a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2006a).

Xyela julii

Xyela julii (Brebisson, 1818)

on Pinus

parasite

The larvae develop in a completely closed male inflorescence, feeding on the pollen. Pupation in a cocoon in the soil.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Pinus sylvestris, uncinata.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Blank (2002a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a).

Xyela graeca

Xyela graeca Stein, 1876

on Pinus

parasite

The larvae develop communally in a completely closed male inflorescence, feeding on the pollen. Pupation in a cocoon in the soil.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Pinus nigra subsp. laricio + pallasiana, ? sylvestris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Blank (2002a), Liston & Späth (2005a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a).

Xyela curva

Xyela curva Benson, 1939

on Pinus

parasite

The larvae develop in a completely closed male inflorescence, feeding on the pollen. Pupation in a cocoon in the soil.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Pinus nigra & subsp. pallasiana.

phenology

The pupae may remain dormant for one to several years.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Blank (2002a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a) .

Pleroneura coniferarum

Pleroneura coniferarum (Hartig, 1837)

on Abies

parasite

A single egg is deposited in the apex of a very young, still closed vegetative bud, The larva bores in the axis of the bud and empties this completely. Once fully fed the larva leaves the bug and pupates in the soil in a dark brown cocoon. The species seems completely parthenogenetic.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Abies alba, ? borisii-regis, cephalonica.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Blank (2002a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Clepsis consimilana

Clepsis consimilana (Hübner, 1817)

privet tortrix

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae in spun leaves, living from dead or fading leaves.

host plants

Carpinus betulus; Cotoneaster horizontalis, microphyllus; Crataegus; Hedera helix; Ligustrum vulgare; Lonicera; Malus sylvestris; Polygonum; Syringa vulgaris; Ulmus.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as third instar larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body purplish green; head light brown, laterally darker; prothoracic and anal plates and pinacua brown; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Cacoecia, Clepsis, unifasciana (Duponchel, 1843).

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Swatschek (1958a), Zlatkov & Huemer (2019a).

Pristiphora punctifrons

Pristiphora punctifrons (Thomson, 1871)

on Rosa

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves. Oviposition in still unopened leaves, in teeth along the leaf margin.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Rosa canina, majalis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Pristiphora mollis

Pristiphora mollis (Hartig, 1837)

on Vaccinium

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves. Oviposition at the base of the teeth along the leaf margin.

host plants

Ericaceae, monophagous

Vaccinium myrtillus, uliginosum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Larva can be green or red. On both sides of the dark dorsal vessel, there are longitudinal white subcutaneous fat stripes on the thorax and abdominal segments 1–9.

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Pristiphora cincta

Pristiphora cincta Newman, 1837

on ?Betula, ? Salix, Vaccinium

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves. Oviposition in pockets through margins of the leaves.

host plants

Ericaceae, ? monophagous

Vaccinium macrocarpon, myrtillus, uliginosum.

Records from Betula pubescens; Salix possibly apply to different species.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a).

Pristiphora bufo

Pristiphora bufo (Brischke, 1883)

on Larix

parasite

Larvae free on the needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Larix decidua, x eurolepis, gmelinii, kaempferi, laricina, sibirica..

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a).

Clepsis senecionana

Clepsis senecionana (Hübner, 1819)

obscure tortrix

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Agrimonia eupatoria; Centaurea scabiosa; Clinopodium vulgare; Comarum; Convallaria; Dorycnium; Gentianella amarella; Larix; Lotus; Myrica gale; Onobrychis; Origanum vulgare; Picea; Pinus; Polygonatum; Potentilla; Vaccinium myrtillus.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Clepsis helvolana Frölich, 1828; Tortrix rusticana Hübner, 1799.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Graham (2014a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2003a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Aphelia paleana

Aphelia paleana (Hübner, 1793)

timothy tortrix, plain yellow twist

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae in spun leaves.

host plants

Abies; Caltha palustris; Centaurea; Cirsium; Colchicum; Dactylis glomerata; Elytrigia repens; Fagus sylvatica; Geranium pratense; Inula; Iris pseudacorus; Lonicera caprifolium; Luzula; Petasites albus, paradoxus; Phleum pratense; Phragmites australis; Picea sitchensis; Plantago; Quercus; Rhinanthus; Scabiosa; Tussilago farfara; Vaccinium myrtillu.

phenology

Univoltine, hibernate as half-full grown larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Lipoptycha, Tortrix, Zelotherses, paleana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Hering (1957a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Szőcs (1977a).

Pristiphora melanocarpa

Pristiphora melanocarpa (Hartig, 1840)

on Betula

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves. Oviposition scars in the leaf margin, between the teeth.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

plantnaamengenus.

That the species would live also on Salix is considered unlikely by Prous ao.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Buhr (1964b, 1965a), Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a), Roskam (2019a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Pristiphora pallidiventris

Pristiphora pallidiventris (Fallén, 1808)

on Filipendula, Geum, Potentilla, Rubus

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Rosaceae, oligophagous

Filipendula ulmaria; Geum rivale, urbanum;Potentilla; Rubus chamaemorus, fruticosus, ulmifolius.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Haris (2018a), Liston, Jacobs & Prous (2015a), Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Syndemis musculana

Syndemis musculana (Hübner, 1799)

dark-barred tortrix, illusory tortricid

broadly polyphagous

parasite

Larvae concealed among compactly spun or rolled leaves.

host plants

Achillea; Agrimonia; Betula; Calluna vulgaris; Cytisus scoparius; Eupatorium; Filipendula ulmaria; Galium; Genista; Larix; Lycopus europaeus; Lysimachia; Lythrum; Malus; Myrica; Picea; Pinus contorta; Populus tremula; Pseudotsuga menziesii; Pyrola; Quercus; Rubus idaeus; Salix; Scrophularia; Solidago virgaurea; Sorbus; Stachys; Tilia; Vaccinium.

Quercus seems the most important host plant.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cacoecia musculana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Graham (2014a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Pristiphora micronematica

Pristiphora micronematica Malaise, 1931

on Salix

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves. Oviposition: the egg pockets were on undersides of leaves near the leaf margin in large buds.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Salix caprea, pentandra, phylicifolia.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Buhr (1965a), Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a), Roskam (2017a).

Pristiphora laricis

Pristiphora laricis (Hartig, 1837)

on Larix

parasite

Larvae freely on the needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Larix decidua, x euolepis, gmelinii, kaempferi, laricina, occidentalis, sibirica.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a).

Pristiphora thalictri

Pristiphora thalictri (Kriechbaumer, 1884)

on Thalictrum

parasite

Larvae live freely on the leaves

host plants

Ranunculaceae, monophagous

Thalictrum aquilegiifolium, flavum, minus.

phenology

Several generations; hobernation as mature larve in a solid cocoon.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Larva uniformly yellowish green, shining.

references

Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Macek (2016a), Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2006a).

Pristiphora rufipes

Pristiphora rufipes Serville, 1823

aquilegia sawfly, columbine sawfly

on Aquilegia

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Ranunculaceae, monophagous

Aquilegia atrata, caerulea, canadensis, chrysantha, flabellata, olympica, vulgaris.

phenology

Several generations; hibernation as a mature larva in a solid cocoon.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body uniformly dull green; see Macek.

references

Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Macek (2016a), Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a).

Choristoneura hebenstreitella

Choristoneura hebenstreitella (Müller, 1764)

great tortrix, mountain-ash tortricid

polyphagous on deciduous trees and shrubs.

parasite

Larvae in rolled leaves.

host plants

Betula; Corylus avellana; Hedera helix; Malus; Myrica gale; Prunus cerasus; Pyrus; Quercus robur; Rubus idaeus; Salix caprea; Sambucus nigra; Sorbus; Ulmus; Vaccinium myrtillus.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Archips, Cacoecia, sorbiana (Hübner, 1799).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Szabóky & Csóka (2010a).

Archips rosana

Archips rosana (Linnaeus, 1758)

rose tortrix

polyphagous on deciduous trees and shrubs

parasite

Larvae in rolled leaves.

host plants

Abies; Citrus; Cornus sanguinea; Corylus avellana; Crataegus; Hippophae rhamnoides; Humulus lupulus; Ligustrum; Lonicera; Malus; Myrica gale; Prunus spinosa; Pyrus; Quercus robur; Ribes nigrum; Rosa; Rubus idaeus; Salix alba; Urtica; Vaccinium; Viburnum; Vitis.

Rarely Abies.

phenology

Univoltine, hibernation as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cacoecia rosana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Szabóky & Csóka (2010a).

Pristiphora erichsonii

Pristiphora erichsonii (Hartig, 1837)

larch sawfly

on Larix

Gall

Eggs are deposited in pockets cut into one side of terminal shoots, causing them to curl in a characteristic fashion. The larvae live in groups free on the needles; they strip a branch before moving to another; sometimes casing severe defoliation.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Larix decidua, gmelinii, kaempferi, laricina, occidentalis, sibirica.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body dorsally greyish green, ventrally whitish; head shining black.

references

Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a).

Pristiphora borea

Pristiphora borea (Konow, 1904)

on Betula

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves, feeding at the leaf margins. Oviposition observed of several eggs in pockets near leaf-margin on underside of the young leaves

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula nana.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a).

Stephanitis pyri

Stephanitis pyri (Frabricius, 1775)

pear lace bug

polyphagous on deciduous trees and shrubs

parasite

All stages live freely at the undersides of the leaves. According to Buhr the suction damage on young shoots results in the development of rows of a few mm sized warts.

host plants

Castanea; Chaenomeles; Cornus; Cotoneaster; Crataegus; Cydonia; Juglans; Ligustrum; Malus domestica; Malus domestica; Prunus armeniaca, cerasus, domestica, persica; Pyrus communis; Quercus; Ribes; Robinia; Rosa; Tilia; Ulmus; Vaccinium.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Alford (2014a), Buhr (1965a), Roskam (2019a), Stehlík (2002a).

Pristiphora abietina

Pristiphora abietina (Christ, 1791)

small spruce fly

on Picea

parasite

The larvae live freely on the needles; repeated infestations may induces malformationa resembling wirches’ brooms.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Picea abies, obovata, pungens, sitchensis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), von Berger & Katzensteiner (1994a), Buhr (1965a), Olenici & Olenici (2005a), Prous, Kramp, Vikberg & Liston (2017a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Roskam (2019a).

Tingis crispata

Tingis crispata (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838)

Artemisia

gall

entire above-ground plant is somewhat stunted.

host plants

Artemisia absinthium, campestris, vulgaris.

phenology

Hibernates as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Aukema (1976a), Buhr (1964b), Grancher, Aubourg & Gargatte (2011a), Roskam (2019a), Stehlík (2002a), Tomasi (2014a), Viskens, Bruers & Vercauteren (0000a).

Archips xylosteana

Archips xylosteana (Linnaeus, 1758)

variegated golden tortrix

on deciduous trees and shrubs

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves

host plants

Abies; Acer; Alnus; Betula; Castanea; Citrus; Cornus; Corylus avellana; Crataegus; Fagus; Frangula alnus; Fraxinus excelsior; Hypericum; Juglans regia; Laburnum anagyroides; Lonicera periclymenum; Malus; Mespilus germanica; Myrica; Populus; Prunus cerasus, domestica; Pyrus communis; Quercus robur; Rubus fruticosus; Salix caprea; Sorbus aucuparia; Tilia; Ulmus minor.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as egg?

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cacoecia xylosteana.

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Szabóky & Csóka (2010a).

Archips crataegana

Archips crataegana (Hübner, 1799)

brown oak tortrix

on deciduous trees and shrubs

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves

host plants

Acer; Betula; Cotoneaster; Crataegus; Frangula alnus; Fraxinus excelsior; Malus domestica; Mespilus; Populus tremula; Prunus domestica, spinosa; Pyrus; Quercus robur; Salix.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernatiob as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cacoecia crataegana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Archips podana

podana (Scopoli, 1763)

large fruit-tree tortrix

polyphagous, mainly on woody plants

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves

host plants

Alnus; Arctium; Betula; Clematis; Cornus mas; Corylus; Cydonia; Fagus sylvatica; Filipendula ulmaria; Fraxinus; Hieracium; Humulus; Malus domestica; Picea; Populus; Primula; Prunus avium, cerasus, domestica, padus, spinos; Pteridium aquilinum; Pyrus communis; Quercus robur; Rhododendron; Ribes nigrum; Rosa; Rubus fruticosus; Salix; Sorbus; Spiraea salicifolia; Tilia; Trifolium; Vaccinium; Vitis.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as young larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cacoecia podana.

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Choristoneura lafauryana

Choristoneura lafauryana (Ragonot, 1875)

sweet-gale tortrix, soybean tortricid

mainly on Myrica

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

polyphagous

Artemisia montana; Boehmeria nivea; Forsythia; Fragaria; Glycine; Malus domestica; Medicago sativa; Myrica gale; Populus; Pyrus; Ribes; Salix; Sanguisorba officinalis; Trifolium.

In natural situations Myrica gale seems the normal host plant.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as young larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Archips, Cacoecia, lafauryana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Choristoneura diversana

Choristoneura diversana (Hübner, 1817)

forest tortrix

polyphagous on deciduous trees

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Acer campestre, platanoides; Alnus; Betula pendula; Fagus sylvatica; Lonicera caprifolium, periclymenum; Malus domestica; Populus nigra, tremula; Prunus domestica, spinosa; Pyrus communis; Quercus robur; Rhamnus cathartica; Salix aurita; Syringa vulgaris; Ulmus.

Records from herbs, like Achillea millefolium; Ononis, Trifolium are less likely.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as young larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Tortrix diversana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Choristoneura murinana

Choristoneura murinana (Hübner, 1799)

european fir budworm

on Abies

parasite

Eggs are imbricately deposited in a double row on the needles. Larvae among spun needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Abies alba, cilicica.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body green; head black; prothoracic plate blad, with median sulcus; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cacoecia murinana.

references

Disqué (1905a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Pandemis cinnamomeana

Pandemis cinnamomeana (Treitschke, 1830)

white-faced tortrix

polyphagous on woody plants

parasite

xxxx

host plants

Abies alba; Acer pseudoplatanus; Betula; Larix decidua; Malus domestica; Picea sitchensis; Prunus padus; Pyrus; Quercus; Salix; Sorbus aucuparia; Vaccinium.

phenology

Univoltine

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

Foto’s op Lepiforum.

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Synergus variabilis

Synergus variabilis Mayr, 1873

on Quercus

parasite

Inquiline, mostly of cynipids of the genera Andricus, Aphelonyx, Dryocosmus, and Pseudoneuroterus, less often also of the cecidomyiids Dryomyia circinnans and Janetia cerris.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus cerris, ithaburensis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Ceresa (2015a), Melika (2006a), Roskam (2019a), Shachar, Melika, Inbar & Dorchin (2018a), Wachi, Ide & Abe (2011a).

Rhopalomyia jaapi

“Rhopalomyia jaapi” Rübsaamen

on Artemisia

parasite

Buhr and Roskam refer to a gall midge that would cause abnormally hairy growth disturbances of the shoot tip and lateral buds, under the name Rhopalomyia jaapi. Buhr mentions the name between quotes. The same name, albeit without a description, is used by Jaap, with the author’s name: “Rübs. n. sp. in litt.”. The name is not mentioned in in the catalogue by Gagné & Jaschhof. It seems safe to conclude that the species never has validly been described.

references

Buhr (1964b), Gagné & Jaschhof (2014a), Jaap (1928a), Roskam (2019a).

Pandemis dumetana

Pandemis (Treitschke, 1835)

thicket tortrix, strawberry tortricid

polyphagous on herbs

parasite

Larvae in rolled or pleated leaves

host plants

Calystegia sepium; Centaurea; Dictamnus albus; Fragaria; Hedera helix; Lathyrus palustris; Lonicera periclymenum; Lysimachia vulgaris; Medicago sativa; Mentha; Origanum; Petasites hybridus; Quercus; Rubus caesius; Sanguisorba; Symphytum; Thalictrum lucidum; Trifolium repens; UrticaValeriana officinalis.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as young larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Pandemis heparana

Pandemis heparana (Denis & Schifermüller, 1775)

dark fruit-tree tortrix, apple brown tortrix

polyphagous on woody plants

parasite

Larvae in rolled leaves.

host plants

Betula; Fagus sylvatica; Frangula alnus; Fraxinus; Lonicera periclymenum; Malus domestica; Myrica gale; Prunus; Pyrus; Quercus; Ribes; Rubus; Salix caprea; Sorbus torminalis; Tilia; Ulmus; Vaccinium myrtillus.

Also herbs, like Anchusa; Lysimachia.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as a young larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Hemichroa australis

Hemichroa australis (Serville, 1823)

on Alnus, Betula

Hemichroa feeding pattern

Alnus glutinosa, comparison of the feeding pattern of a young larva of H. australis (at left), and that if H. crocea (at right) (from Sottyk).

parasite

Oviposition scars in he form of an isolated oval swelling of the petiole. The later larva lives free; especially the younger larva demonstrates a characteristic feeding pattern, a group of sinusoidal slits,

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Alnus glutinosa, viridis; Betula pendula.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Buhr (1964a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Roskam (2019a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Sottyk (2002a).

Pandemis cerasana

Pandemis cerasana (Hübner, 1786)

barred fruit-tree tortrix

polyphagous on woody plants

parasite

Larvae in a rolled leaf.

host plants

Acer; Alnus; Berberis; Betula pendula; Carpinus betulus; Corylus avellana; Malus; Prunus spinosal Pyrus; Quercus; Rhamnus; Ribes uva-crispa; Rubus; Salix caprea; Sorbus; Symphoricarpos albus; Tilia; Ulmus minor; Vaccinium myrtillus.

References to herbs like Geum urbanum; Lysimachia vulgaris probably are exceptional.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as egg or as young larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Pandemis ribeana (Hübner, 1799).

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Pandemis corylana

Pandemis corylana (Fabrcius, 1794)

chequered fruit-tree tortrix

polyphagous on woody plants

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Amelanchier; Betula; Carpinus betulus; Cornus sanguinea; Corylus avellana; Fagus sylvatica; Frangula alnus; Fraxinus excelsior; Prunus; Quercus; Rubus.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as egg?

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Eriocampa ovata

Eriocampa ovata (Linnaeus, 1758)

woolly alder sawfly

on Alnus

parasite

Eggs are deposited in a row of up to eight in the upper side of the midrib. They long remain recognisable as a row of oval swellings, also after the eggs are vacated, The larvae leave the eggs at the underside of the leaf, and remain feeding at the underside. They are caterpillar-like and in all except the latest stage covered by a dense felt of snow-white downy wax. Each time they start feeding on a new part of a leaf they gnaw the main veins, causing the leaf to wither. Preference for older leaves. The species is fully parthenogenetic.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Alnus glutinosa, incana.

Savina & Chevin moreover mention Corylus, Frangula.

phenology

Bivoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Buhr (1964a), Roskam (2019a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Synergus radiatus

Synergus radiatus Mayr, 1873

on Quercus

parasite

Inquiline in galls of many Andricus species, in some Cynips, Neuroterus and
Trigonaspis species

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus canariensis, faginea, petraea, pubescens, pyrenaica, robur.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Buhr (1965a), Ceresa (2015a), Melika (2006a), Nieves-Aldrey, Gómez, Hernández Nieves & Lobo (2006a).Roskam (2019a), Tavares (1905a).

Grapholita lathyrana

Grapholita lathyrana (Hübner, 1822)

greenweed piercer

on Fabaceae

parasite

The larvae live in spun stem tips.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Cytisus scoparius;Genista sagittalis, tinctoria; Spartium junceum; Ulex europaeus.

phenology

Univoltine; the liarve hibernates in a cocoon among the litter.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish white; head yellowish brown, sides darker; prothoracic and anal plates concolorous with body; see Swatschek

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia, Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, lathyrana; Grapholita scopariana Herrich-Schäffer, 1851.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Grapholita jungiella

Grapholita jungiella (Clerck, 1759)

vetch piercer

on Lathyrus, Vicia

parasite

Larvae hidden in leaflets that are spun together.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Lathyrus linifolius, niger, pratensis; Vicia sepium.

phenology

Univoltine; the larva hibernates, in a cocoon among the litter.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body greenish white; head light yellowish brown, sides darker; prothoracic plate brown; anal plate brown, darker punctuated; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Cydia jungiella; Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, perlepidana Haworth, 1811.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Grapholita discretana

Grapholita discretana (Wocke, 1861)

on Humulus

parasite

The larva bores in the steh, here also the hibernation.

host plants

Cannabaceae, monophagous

Humulus lupulus.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish; head blackish brown; prothoracic plate lighter; anal plate small, brown; pinacula large, greyish brown; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia, Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, discretana.

references

Disqué (1905a), Fazekas & Schreurs (2010a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Grapholita funebrana

Grapholita funebrana Treitschke, 1835

plum fruit moth

on Prunus

parasite

The larva tunnels in the pericarp, starting at an entrance hole neat the peduncle.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Prunus avium, cerasus, domestica & subsp. insititia, dulcis, japonica, persica, spinosa.

phenology

One to several generations, depending on the climate; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia, Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, funebrana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Corley, Marabuto, Maravalhas ao (2009a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Grapholita nebritana

Grapholita nebritana Treitschke, 1830

on Colutea

parasite

Larvae in the pods.

host plants

Fabaceae, monophagous

Colutea arborescens.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia, Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, nebritana.

references

Disqué (1905a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Grapholita orobana

Grapholita orobana Treitschke, 1830

crescent piercer

on Lathyrus, Pisum, Vicia

parasite

Larvae in the pods.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Lathyrus linifolius, niger, palustris; pratensis; Pisum sativum; Vicia cracca, sativa, sylvatica.

phenology

Univoltine; the larva hibernates in a cocoon among the litter.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body orabge coloured; head, prothoracic and anal plates and pinacula dark brown; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia, Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, orobana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a.

Grapholita fissana

Grapholita fissana (Frölich, 1828)

on Vicia

parasite

Larvae in the pods.

host plants

Fabaceae, monophagous

Vicia cracca.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body whitish, dorsally dark purple with pale length lines; head and prothoracic plate dark brown; anal plate dark brown with two dark spots; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, fissana.

references

Disqué (1905a), Swatschek (1958a).

Grapholita pallifrontana

Grapholita pallifrontana Lienig & Zeller, 1846

liquorice piercer

on Astragalus

parasite

Larvae in the pods.

host plants

Fabaceae, monophagous

Astragalus glycyphyllos.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva in a cocoon in the litter.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body whitish (shortly before pupation carmin red); head yellowish brown; prothoracic plate dark brown; anal plate brownish; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, pallifrontana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Swatschek (1958a).

Grapholita coronillana

Grapholita coronillana Lienig & Zeller, 1846

on Securigera

parasite

Larvae in the pods.

host plants

Fabaceae, monofaag

Securigera varia.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body white; head brown; thoracic platre brown, darkly punctuated; anal plate dark brown, in front two large dark dots; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia, Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, coronillana.

references

Disqué (1905a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Grapholita internana

Grapholita internana (Guenée, 1845)

dark gorse piercer

on Ulex

parasite

Larvae in the pods.

host plants

Fabaceae, monophagous

Ulex europaeus.

phenology

Univoltine; the larva hibernates in a cocoon either in the pod of among the leaves.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body in the end reddish; head brown; prothoracic plate yellow to brownish, often darkly margined; anal plate brownish; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia, Laspeyresia, internana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Grapholita delineana

soort auteur

eurasian hemp borer

on Cannabis, Humulus

parasite

The young larva for a short while lives freely on the leaves, causing window feedings, rarely also as a leaf miner; Soon it bores itself in the stem, causing a one cm long fusiform swelling.

host plants

Cannabaceae, oligophagous

Humulus japonicus lupulus.

In North America a pest on Cannabis sativa.

phenology

Several generations; the larva hibernates in the stem.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body reddish; head light brown, sides darkened; prothoracic and anal plates brownish yellow; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, tetragrammana Staufinger, 1879.

references

McPartland (2002a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Depressaria depressana

Depressaria depressana (Fabricius, 1775)

lost flat-body

on Daucus, etc.

parasite

The larvae live in a silken tube, in an umbel that has been contracted by spinning.

host plants

Apiaceae, oligophagous

Bunium bulbocastanum; Daucus carota; Heracleum sphondylium; Pastinaca sativa; Pimpinella saxifraga; Seseli annuum, libanotis; Silaum silaus.

Daucus is mentioned most often.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum

references

Corley, Marabuto, Maravalhas ao (2008a), Emmet & Langmaid (2002b), Kasy (1987a), Landry, Nazari, Dewaard ao (2013a), Lepiforum (2019), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a), Schütze (1931a).

Pseudopostega auritella

Pseudopostega auritella (Hübner, 1813)

fen bent-wing

on Lycopus

parasite

Larvae in stem mines.

host plants

Lamiaceae, monophagous

Lycopus europaeus.

Assumptions that the species were associated Caltha palustris haven been shown incorrect.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Gielis, Huisman, Kuchlein ao (1985a), Hering (1957a), Kurz (2016a), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman, ao (1993a), Szőcs (1977a), Triberti, Longo Turri, Adami & Zanetti (2017a) .

Bohemannia auriciliella

Bohemannia auriciliella (de Joannis, 1908)

gold-fringed pigmy

on Betula

parasite

Larval biology unknown.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Emmet (1974d), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken ao (2001a), Kuchlein, Bot & Wolschrijn (2000a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (1997a), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a), van Nieukerken, Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2006a), Skala (1939a).

Synophrus olivieri

Synophrus olivieri Kieffer, 1898

on Quercus

parasite

Inquiline, host species unknown.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus castaneifolia, ithaburensis, suber.

distribution within Europe

Species of the regions to the south and east of the Mediterranean and from the Middle East; not treated in (PESI, 2019).

references

Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Houard (1908a), Pénzes, Melika, Bozsóki ao (2009a), Roskam (2019a), Shachar, Melika, Inbar & Dorchin (2018a).

Dichodiplosis langeni

Dichodiplosis langeni Rübsaamen, 1910

on Prunus

parasite

The red larvae are found in dried fruits; probably they are mycophagous

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Prunus domestica, spinosa.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Barnes (1948b), Gagné & Jaschhof (2014a), Möhn (1955a), Roskam (2019a), Rübsaamen (1910d, 1911e), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2000a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a).

Grapholita gemmiferana

Grapholita gemmiferana Treitschke, 1835

isle of wight piercer

on Lathyrus

parasite

Larvae hidden in de pod-like spun leaflets. ( Reports that the young larvae would live in the pods all refer, according to Hancock & Bland, to Cydia nigricana.)

host plants

Fabaceae, monophagous

Lathyrus pannonicus, sylvestris.

phenology

Univoltine, hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body greenish to greyish white; head light brown; prothoracic and anal plates, and pinacula brown; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Cydia, Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, gemmiferana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a), Schüze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Szőcs (1977a).

Grapholita caecana

Grapholita caecana Schläger, 1847

sainfoin piercer

on Ononis, etc.

parasite

The larva bores downwards in the stems; the frass remains in the tunnel.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Medicago sativa; Onobrychis viciifolia; Ononis spinosa.

phenology

Univoltine; the larva hibernates in the stem.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body whitish, elongated; head ochraceous yellow to yellowish brown; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia, Laspeyresia, caecana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Schütze (1931a), Šumpich, Žemlička & Dvořák (2013a), Swatschek (1958a).

Grapholita lobarzewskii

Grapholita lobarzewskii (Nowicki, 1860)

kent fruit piercer, appleseed moth

on Malus, Prunus

parasite

The larva bores in the fruits. The impression of the infestation differs from that by Cydia pomonella: near the entrance opening into the fruit there are one or two lesser opening where frass is ejected. Moreover, later in the summer tha larva makes several short tunnels just below the epidermis that radiate star-like from the entrance opening.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Malus domestica; Prunus cerasus, domestica.

phenology

? Bivotine; the larva hibernates in a cocoon under loose bark etc.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Cydia lobarzewskii; Cydia prunivorana: Bradley, Tremewan & Smith 1976.

references

Biesenbaum (2010b), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1976a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Kolbeck, Lichtmannecker & Pröse (2005a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Sauter & Wildbolz (1989a), Szőcs (1977a).

Grapholita janthinana

Grapholita janthinana (Duponchel, 1843)

pale-bordered piercer, hawthorn leafroller

on Crataegus, etc.

parasite

The larva spins a few berries together, then bores itself in, feeding on the pericarp.

host plants

Rosaceae, ± monophagous

Crataegus.

Rarely Cotoneaster; Mespilus germanica; Sorbus.

phenology

Univoltine; the larva hibernates in a cocoon under loose bark etc.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia, Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, janthinana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Pammene aurana

Pammene aurana (Fabricius, 1775)

orange-spot piercer

on Heracleum

parasite

The larva bores in the fruits, that are bound together with spinning.

host plants

Apiaceae, monophagous

Heracleum sphondylium.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, aurana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cydia pomonella

Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1958)

codling moth

mainly on Rosaceae

parasite

The larvae bore in the fruits, feeding mainly on the seeds. Infected fruits are stunted and ripen prematurely. Pupation in a cocoon outside of the fruit.

host plants

Rosaceae, oligofaag

Cydonia oblonga; Malus domestica; Prunus armeniaca, persica; Pyrus communis.

Mainly on apple. The occurrence on Juglans regia, as described by, among others, Meijerman & Ulenberg, is astonishing, given the different structure of the fruit; sometimes it is considered a separate variety. Records from Castanea sativa; Ficus carica; Sorbus aria are exceptional at least.

phenology

Bivoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Picture on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Carpocapsa, Laspeyresia, pomonella. The form of walnut has been named Laspeyresia pomonella var. putaminana (Staudinger, 1859).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Braggion (2013a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Kasy (1987a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Roques, Cleary, Matsiakh & Eschem (2017a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Szabóky & Csóka (2010a).

Cydia inquinatana

Cydia inquinatana (Hübner, 1800)

scarce maple piercer

on Acer

parasite

The larvae bore in the fruits; before the winter they leave the fruits to hibernate in the litter.

host plants

Sapindaceae, monophagous

Acer campestre, platanoides, pseudoplatanus.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Picture on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, inquinatana.

references

Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2005a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931), Šumpich (2011b), Swatschek (1958a).

Cydia splendana

Cydia splendana (Hübner, 1799)

late chestnut moth, marbled piercer, acorn moth, chestnut tortrix

on Castanea, Quercus

parasite

The larvae bore in the seeds; the frass is not ejected.

host plants

Fagaceae, oligophagous

Castanea sativa; Quercus robur, rubra.

Occasionally Juglans regia.

phenology

Univoltine; the larvae hibernate in a spun cocoon among the litter.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body greyish; piancula whitish; head light brown; prothoracic and anal plates yellowish; photos on Lepiforum; see also Brown & Komai, Patočka & Turčáni.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Carpocapsa, Laspeyresia, splendana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Brown & Komai (2008a), Disqué (1905a [“splendidana”]), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Myczko, Dylewski, Chrzanowski & Sparks (2017a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cydia fagiglandana

Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller, 1841)

large beech piercer, intermediate chestnut moth

on Fagus, Quercus, etc.

parasite

The larva bores in a fruit, teat gradually becomes packed with frass; if the fruit turns out too small, the larva may move to another fruit/

host plants

(Betulaceae), Fagaceae, ± oligophagous

Castanea sativa; Corylus avellana; Fagus sylvatica; Quercus coccifera, ilex, robur, rotundifolia, rubra, suber.

Many authors mention only beech as a host plant

phenology

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body pink, segments dorsally carmine red; head light brown; prothorcic and anal plates orange yellow; pincula red; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia fagiglandana; Carpocapsa grossana (Haworth, 1811).

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a) Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Brown & Komai (2008a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman & Koster (1996a), Jimenez-Pino, Maistrello, Lopez-Martinez ao (2011a), Lepiforum (2019), Myczko, Dylewski, Chrzanowski & Sparks (2017a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cydia zebeana

Cydia zebeana (Ratzeburg, 1840)

larch bark moth

on Larix

parasite

Larvae bore in the callus tissue that is formed around and over bark wounds of the stem.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Larix decidua.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body light grey; head blach; prothoracic and anal plates brown; pinacula brownish; see Swatschek, but not the possible confusion with the later described mileleniana.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, zebeana; Laspeyresia sanctacruciana Karpinsky & Toll, 1962.

notes

Un the past this species has often been confounded with Cydia millenniana; references to galls mostly refer to that latter species.

references

Bösener (1966a), Buhr (1964a), Disqué (1905a), Houard (1908a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Frankliniella intonsa

Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom, 1895)

european flower thrips

broadly polyphagous on herbs

parasite

Thrips mainly in the flowers. The adults mainly live on pollen, but the larvae feed on the contents of epidermal cels. Flowers, yong leaves and fruits become malformed.

host plants

Achillea millefolium; Allium; Anethum graveolens; Antirrhinum majus; Artemisia vulgaris; Astragalus glycyphyllos; Beta vulgaris; Brassica napus; Calendula officinalis; Capsella bursa-pastoris; Capsicum annuum; Cardaria draba; Centaurea jacea; Cichorium intybus; Cirsium arvense; Clematis recta; Colchicum autumnale; Convolvulus arvensis; Crepis jacquinii, tectorum; Cucumis melo, sativus; Cucurbita pepo; Cyanus segetum; Dahlia; Daucus carota; Dianthus; Erigeron annuus; Erysimum cheiri; Fragaria; Fuchsia; Gladiolus x gandavensis; Glycine max; Gossypium; Helianthus annuus; Hordeum murinum; Hydrangea macrophylla; Hypericum perforatum; Lathyrus tuberosus; Leucanthemum ircutianum; Lilium; Linaria vulgaris; Lycopersicon esculentum; Lythrum salicaria; Malva alcea; Matricaria chamomilla; Medicago sativa; Melilotus officinalis; Mentha; Moenchia mantica; Nerium oleander; Nicotiana tabacum; Papaver rhoeas; Pelargonium; Persicaria lapathifolia; Petunia x hybrida; Phaseolus vulgaris; Pisum sativum; Plantago altissima, lanceolata, manor; Potentilla inclinata, reptans; Ranunculus acris, arvensis, repens; Raphanus raphanistrum & subsp. landra; Rorippa sylvestris; Rosa canina; Rubus; Salvia officinalis; Sambucus ebulus, nigra; Scutellaria hastifolia; Serratula tinctoria; Silene flos-cuculi, latifolia; Sinapis arvensis; Solanum tuberosum; Solidago gigantea; Stachys annua; Tagetes patula; Taraxacum officinale; Thuja; Trifolium arvense, campestre, pratense, repens; Triticum aestivum; Verbascum; Vicia cracca, grandiflora; Viola tricolor; Zea mays.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Atakan & Özgür (000a), Buhr (1965a), Raspudić, Ivezić, Brmež & Trdan (2009a), Roskam (2919a), Ulitzka (2013a) .

Pammene gallicana

Pammene gallicana (Guenée, 1845)

purple-shaded piercer

on Apiaceae

parasite

The larvae live in the inflorescence, feeding on the spun fruits.

host plants

Apiaceae, oligophagous

Angelica sylvestris; Daucus carota; Heracleum sphondylium; Pastinaca sativa; Peucedanum palustre; Peucedanum palustre.

Schütze also mentions Dipsacus fullonum; this needs further confirmation.

phenology

Univoltine; the larva hibernates in a cocoon in the litter.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish brown; head dark brown; prothoracic and anal plates somewhat lighter brown; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, gallicana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a) , Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931), Swatschek (1958a). Wegner (2010a).

Cydia leguminana

Cydia leguminana (Lienig & Zeller, 1846)

eastern piercer

on deciduous trees

parasite

The larva lives in a frass-filled spiken tube in recovering bark wounds, proeferably in the very youngest tissue.

host plants

polyphagous

Acer pseudoplatanus; Alnus; Fagus sylvatica; Ulmus procera.

phenology

Ubivoltoine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish white; head reddish brown, sides darker; prothoracic and anal plate greyish brown, darkly punctuated; pinacula greyish brown; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, leguminana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cydia illutana

Cydia illutana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851)

larch piercer

on Pinaceae

parasite

The larvae bore in the still green cones; also observed in Adelges and Sacchiphantes galls.

host plants

Pinaceae, oligophagous

Abies alba; Larix decidua, gmelinii, sibirica; Picea abies, obovata; Pseudotsuga menziesii.

phenology

Umivoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body squat, brownish yellow; head completely brown; prothoracic plate brown; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, illutana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cydia cosmophorana

Cydia cosmophorana (Treitschke, 1835)

scarce pine piercer

on Picea, Pinus

parasite

Larvae in resin-exuding bark wounds, and in old resin galls of Retinia resinella.

host plants

Pinaceae, oligophagous

Picea abies; Pinus nigra subsp. laricio, sylvestris, uncinata.

phenology

Univoltine, hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish; head light brown; prothoracic plate yellowish; anal plate tiny; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Grapholitha cosmophorana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Buhr (1965a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cydia strobilella

Cydia strobilella (Linnaeus, 1758)

spruce cone moth, spruce-seed moth

on Picea, etc.

Cydia strobiella larva in Picea cone

Picea spec. © W Strong: larva in bisected cone (from Forest Genetics Council of British Columbia)

parasite

The larva lives in the cone, tunnelling from one seed to the other by way of the cone axis. Apart from premature opening, no external evidence of larval feeding damage is visible on cones.

host plants

Pinaceae, oligophagous

Abies alba; Picea abies, omorika; Pinus sylvestris; Pseudotsuga menziesii.

phenology

Univoltine; hiernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellow; head light to dark brown; prothoracic plate yellowish (Swatschek).

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, strobilella.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Forest Genetics Council of British Columbia (0000a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman & Koster (1999a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cydia ulicetana

Cydia ulicetana (Haworth, 1811)

grey gorse piercer

on Cytisus, Genista, Ulex

parasite

Larvae in the pods, able to move from one fruit to the other. Pupation in a cocoon among the litter.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Cytisus scoparius; Genista; Ulex.

Occasionally Lotus corniculatus.

phenology

Bivoltine;hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body translucent greyish white; head brown, laterally darker; prothoracic plate light brown; pinacula waek, light brown (Hancock & Bland).

synonyms

Considered conspecific with Cydia succedana by some authors.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a).

Cydia oxytropidis

Cydia oxytropidis (Martini, 1912)

on Oxytropis

parasite

Larvae in te pods.

host plants

Fabaceae, monophagous

Oxytropis pilosa.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish white, covered by white spinules; head light to dark brown; prothoracic plate brownish (Swatschek).

synonyms

Laspeyresia oxytropidis.

references

Kolbeck, Lichtmannecker & Pröse (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cydia adenocarpi

Cydia adenocarpi (Ragonot, 1875)

on Adenocarpus

parasite

Larae in the pods.

host plants

Fabacae, monophagous

Adenocarpus complicatus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body off-white; head and prothoracic plate dark brown; anal platr small, brownish; pinacula large, brownish grey (Swatschek).

synonyms

Laspeyresia adenocarpi.

references

Swatschek (1958a).

Thrips atratus

Thrips atratus Haliday, 1836

on Caryophyllaceae, etc.

parasite

Thrips mainly in the flowers.

host plants

mainly Caryophyllaceae

Dactylis glomerata; Dianthus; Gypsophila fastigiata; Knautia arvensis; Lavandula latifolia; Pelargonium; Plantago; Silene latifolia; Solanum tuberosum; Spergula arvensis; Stachys annua; Stellaria alsine, graminea, holostea, media.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Taeniothrips atratus.

references

Buhr (1964b, 1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Kucharczyk & Kucharczyk (2009a), Mound, Morison, Pitkin & Palmer (1976a), Raspudić, Ivezić, Brmež & Trdan (2009a), Roskam (2009a, 2019a), Ulitzka (2013a).

Thrips nigropilosus

Thrips nigropilosus Uzel, 1895

chrysanthemum thrips

on Asteraceae, etc.

parasite

Thrips in the flowers and inflorescences, to a lesses degree also among the leaves.

host plants

polyphagous, but primarily Asteraceae

Acer campestre; Achillea millefolium; Avena sativa; Chrysanthemum; Lactuca; Linum usitatissimum; Medicago sativa; Plantago lanceolata, maritima; Senecio; Sonchus arvensis; Sorghum halepense; Tanacetum; Taraxacum officinale.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Buhr (1964a), Karadjova & Krumov (2015a), Mound, Morison, Pitkin & Palmer (1976a), Raspudić, Ivezić, Brmež & Trdan (2009a) , Roskam (2009a, 2019a).

Kakothrips robustus

Kakothrips robustus (Uzel, 1895)

pea thrips

on Fabaceae

parasite

The thrips live hidden in the flowers; the damage the developing ovary. This gives the later pads a scabious appearance.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Lathyrus sativus, tuberosus; Lotus corniculatus; Medicago sativa; Onobrychis viciifolia; Phaseolus vulgaris; Pisum sativum; Securigera varia; Trifolium pratense, repens; Vicia cracca, faba, sativa.

phenology

One or more generations; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Kakothrips pisivorus (westwood, 1880).

references

Buhr (1965a), Karadjova & Krumov (2015a), Mound, Morison, Pitkin & Palmer (1976a), Raspudić, Ivezić, Brmež & Trdan (2009a), Roskam (2019a), Williams (1915a).

Iridothrips iridis

Iridothrips iridis (Watson, 1924)

on Iris

parasite

The thrips live in the submerges leaf sheaths that are filled with a mucous substance. Here also the hibernation takes place, as apterous females.

host plants

Iridaceae, monophagous

Iris pseudacorus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Frankliniella iridis.

references

Jenser (2013a), Karadjova & Krumov (2015a), Mound, Morison, Pitkin & Palmer (1976a).

Odontothrips loti

Odontothrips loti (Haliday, 1852)

lupin flower thrips, birdsfoot trefoil thrips

on Fabaceae

parasite

Like all species of the genus Odontothrips this one lives concealed in the flowers of Fabaceae, damaging the ovaries.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Anthyllis; Dorycnium pentaphyllum subsp. herbaceum; Hippocrepis emerus; Lathyrus pratensis; Lotus corniculatus; Lupinus; Medicago sativa; Ononis; Securigera varia; Trifolium.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Buhr (1964b), Karadjova & Krumov (2015a), Lambinon Schneider & Feitz (2012a), Mound, Morison, Pitkin & Palmer (1976a), Raspudić, Ivezić, Brmež & Trdan (2009a), Roskam (2019a), Tomasi (2012a, 2014a), Ulitzka (2013a), Vîrteiu, Grozea, Ștef ao (2016a).

Diaspidiotus bavaricus

Diaspidiotus bavaricus (Lindinger, 1912)

blueberry armoured scale

on Ericaceae

parasite

Female scales on the lower, partly underground branches; they are dark grey, convex, ± 2 mm, with light brown central exuvia; mostly they are largely overgrown by fungi and algae, and hardly recognisable.

host plants

Ericaceae, oligophagous

Arbutus unedo; Calluna vulgaris; Empetrum nigrum; Erica arborea, ciliaris, cinerea, tetralix,umbellata.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Gomez-Menor Ortega (1957a), Gertsson (2011a), Jansen (1999b, 2013a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Malumphy (2010a), Malumphy, Ostrauskas & Pye (2010a), Masten Milek, Seljak, Šimala ao (2016a), ScaleNet (2019).

Diaspidiotus zonatus

Diaspidiotus zonatus (Frauenfeld, 1868)

zonate armoured scale

on Quercus, etc.

Diaspidiotus zonatus, female scale

female scale (from Malumphy)

parasite

Scales on the branches.

host plants

primarily Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus cerris, coccifera, ilex, infectoria subsp. veneris, ithaburensis, lusitanica, palustris, petraea, pubescens, pyrenaica, robur.

Also Ceratonia siliqua; Fagus sylvatica.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Aspidiotus, Quadraspidiotus, zonatus.

references

Blay Goicoechea (1992a), Buhr (1965a), Fetykó (2014a), Gertsson (2016a) , Gomez-Menor Ortega (1957a, 1960a), Hellrigl (2004a), Jansen (1999b, 2013a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Malumphy (2010a), Masten Milek, Seljak, Šimala ao (2016a), Roskam (2019a), Seljak (2010a), Spodek, Ben-Dov & Mendel (2013a).

Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis

Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (Curtis, 1843)

yellow plum scale

polyphagous on woody plants

Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis: female scale

female scale (from Allen & Malumphy)

parasite

Female scale circular, dark grey to black, exuviae subcentral, orange-yellow; diameter up to 1.9 mm; body under the scale orange.

host plants

Acacia karroo, saligna; Aesculus hippocastanum; Alnus rubra; Betula pendula; Broussonetia papyrifera; Carpinus; Corylus avellana; Crataegus azarolus, rhipidophylla; Ficus carica, elastica; Fraxinus excelsior; Ligustrum; Malus pumila; Morus alba, nigra; Platanus occidentalis; Populus alba; Prunus avium, cerasus, domestica, persica; Pyrus communis; Quercus; Ribes nigrum; Salix; Sorbus aucuparia; Syringa vulgaris; Tilia platyphyllos; Ulmus; Wigandia caracasana.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Quadraspidiotus ostreaeformis.

references

Allen & Malumphy (0000a), Blay Goicoechea (1992a), Bugila (2006a), Buhr (1964b), Fetykó (2014a), Gomez-Menor Ortega (1957a), Hellrigl (2004a), Jansen (1999b), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Malumphy (2010a), Malumphy, Ostrauskas & Pye (2010a), Masten Milek, Seljak, Šimala ao (2016a), Mifsud, Mazzeo, Russo & Watson (2014a), Podsiadło (2006a), Roskam (2019a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Seljak (2010a), Tomasi (2014a).

Cydia corollana

Cydia corollana (Hübner, 1823)

aspen-shoot piercer

on Populus

parasite

The larva lives in old galls of Saperda populnea, feeding on the green bark.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Populus tremula.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, corollana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Buhr (1965a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a), Szőcs (1977a).

Clepsis rurinana

Clepsis rurinana (Linnaeus, 1758)

pale tortrix

broadly polyphagous

parasite

Larvae in rolled leaves.

host plants

Acer; Aconitum; Anthriscus; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi; Aster; Bupleurum falcatum; Chelidonium; Convolvulus; Corylus avellana; Euphorbia; Fagus sylvatica; Helianthemum nummularium; Lilium; Lonicera caprifolium, periclymenum, xylosteum; Quercus; Rosa canina; Rumex; Teucrium scorodonia.

phenology

Univoltine;hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cacoecia, Clepsis, semialbana Guenée, 1845.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Adoxophyes orana

Adoxophyes orana (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1834)

summer fruit tortrix

polyphagous, mainly on woody plants

parasite

Larvae among folded or spun leaves.

host plants

Acer campestre; Alnus glutinosa; Betula pendula; Corylus avellana; Cydonia oblonga; Fagus sylvatica; Forsythia suspensa; Gossypium herbaceum;Humulus lupulus; Laburnum; Ligustrum; Lonicera caprifolium, pericylmenum, xylosteum; Malus sylvestris; Medicago; Menyanthes trifoliata; Pistacia lentiscus; Populus; Prunus armeniaca, avium, domestica & subsp. insititia, padus, persica, triloba; Pyrus communis; Ribes nigrum, rubrum, uva-crispa; Rosa canina; Rubus fruticosus. Salix caprea, viminalis; Solanum dulcamara; Symphoricarpos albus; Syringa vulgaris; Taxus baccata; Tilia; Ulmus; Vaccinium.

phenology

Bivoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Adoxophyes, Capua, reticulana (Hübner, 1819).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock &; Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2003a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Capua vulgana

Capua vulgana (Fabricius, 1828)

common tortrix

polyphagous on woody plants

parasite

Lavae amons pun leaves.

host plants

Alnus glutinosa; Betula; Carpinus betulus; Corylus avellana; Quercus; Rubus idaeus; Sorbus aucuparia; Ulmus; Vaccinium myrtillus.

phenology

Univoltine; hhibernation as pupa.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body greyish brown; pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

synonyms

Capua favillaceana Hübner, 1817.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a), Lepiforum (2019), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Ptycholoma lecheana

Ptycholoma lecheana (Linnaeus, 1758)

brindled tortrix

polyphagous on woody plants

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Abies; Acer; Crataegus; Fagus; Fraxinus; Larix; Malus; Picea; Populus; Prunus avium, cerasus, padus, spinosa; Quercus; Ribes nigrum; Salix; Sorbus aucuparia; Tilia; Ulmus minor.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body dorsally dark green to grey, mostly conspicuous pinacula; pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cacoecia lecheana.

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Lozotaeniodes cupressana

Lozotaeniodes cupressana (Duponchel, 1836)

on Chamaecyparis, Juniperus

parasite

Larvae among spun shoots.

host plants

Cupressaceae, oligophagous

Chamaecyparis; Juniperus oxycedrus & subsp, macrocarpa, phoenicea.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body brown, with conspicuous white pinacula; pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

references

Huertas Dionisio (2007a), Lepiforum (2019), Requena i Miret (1998a), Swatschek (1958a).

Lozotaenia forsterana

Lozotaenia forsterana (Fabricius, 1781)

large ivy tortrix

polyphagous

parasite

Larva among spun young leaves.

host plants

Abies; Andromeda polifolia; Campanula; Fraxinus; Hedera helix; Larix decidua; Ligustrum; Lonicera periclymenum; Luzula luzuloides; Picea; Pinus; Prunus laurocerasus, serotina; Rhododendron tomentosum; Ribes;Rubus idaeus; Sedum; Stachys sylvatica; Vaccinium myrtillus, uliginosum, vitis-idaea.

phenology

Univoltine, hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

pictures on Lepiforum, see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Tortrix forsterana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a(, Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Šumpich (2011b), Swatschek (1958a).

Paramesia gnomana

Paramesia gnomana (Clerck, 1759)

small straw tortrix

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae among pun leaves.

host plants

Iris pseudacorus; Plantago; Stachys germanica, sylvatica; Taraxacum; Vaccinium myrtillus.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellow to greyish green; head brownish yellow; prothoracic plate brown; anal plate yellowish green; thoracic pinacula brown, the abdominal ones yellowish green; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Dichelia gnomana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Periclepsis cinctana

Periclepsis cinctana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

dover tortrix, tree twist

polyphagous

parasite

Larva in a silken tube or among spun leaves.

host plants

Anthyllis vulneraria; Artemisia; Cytisus scoparius; Genista tinctoria; Lotus.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body greenish brown; head and prothoracic plate black; anal plate light brown, darkly punctuated; pinacula black; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Eulia cinctana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Philedone gerningana

Philedone gerningana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

cinquefoil tortrix, twist

polyphagous on herbs

parasite

Larvae in a silken tube or among spun leaves.

host plants

Armeria maritima; Helianthemum; Limonium vulgare; Lotus corniculatus; Medicago minima; Myrica gale; Peucedanum; Plantago media; Potentilla erecta; Scabiosa columbaria; Vaccinium uliginosum.

Occasionally Picea sitchensis

phenology

Univoltine, hibernation as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Amphisa gerningana; Philedone geringiana: Swatschek.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Philedonides lunana

Philedonides lunana (Thunberg, 1784)

heath tortrix

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae among spun young leaves.

host plants

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi; Argentina anserina; Artemisia vulgaris; Calluna vulgaris; Centaurea nigra, scabiosa; Cirsium; Daucus carota; Erica; Fraxinus excelsior; Genista anglica; Larix; Mentha; Myrica gale; Ononis fruticosa;Peucedanum palustre;Picea sitchensis; Pinus contorta; Salix caprea; Silene uniflora; Smyrnium olusatrum; Trifolium pratense; Vaccinium

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as pupa.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures in Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Amphisa, Philedone, prodromana (Hübner, 1816).

synonyms

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019). Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Ditula joannisiana

Ditula joannisiana (Ragonot, 1888)

on Lavandula, Santolina

parasite

Larvae among young spun shoots.

host plants

polyphagous

Lavandula stoechas; Santolina.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body greyish green; head blackish brown; prothoracic plate dark brown; anal plate greyish brown; pinacula blackish brown; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Hastula joannisiana.

references

Corley, Marabuto, Maravalhas ao (2009a); Swatschek (1958a).

Sparganothis pilleriana

Sparganothis pilleriana (Denis & Schiffermmüller, 1775)

long-nosed tortrix, vine leafroller tortrix

polyphagous

parasite

Larva among youbg spun leaves.

host plants

Artemisia campestris; Centaurea; Clematis vitalba; Dictamnus; Genista tinctoria; Humulus; Humulus lupulus; Iris foetidissima; Limonium vulgare; Lysimachia; Malus; Narthecium ossifragum; Origanum vulgare; Plantago; Polygonatum;Pyrus communis; Rosa spinosissima; Salvia officinalis; Sedum; Stachys germanica; Tanacetum corymbosum; Vincetoxicum hirundinaria; Vitis vinifera.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body greyish groen, often with a narrow dark dorsal length line; head and prothoracic plate blackish brown; pinacula recognisable as light dots; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Oenophthira pilleriana.

notes

A pest in viticulture.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Kasy (1987a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1981a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Olindia schumacherana

schumacherana (Fabricius, 1787)

white-barred tortrix, .. twist

polyphagous on forest herbs

parasite

Larvae in spun leaves

host plants

Ajuga; Anemone; Aquilegia vulgaris; Chrysosplenium; Ficaria verna; Lamium galeobdolon; Mercurialis perennis; Vaccinium myrtillus.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish green; head yellow, with brown markings; prothoracic plate and pinacula brownish black; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Anisotaenia, Olindia, ulmana (Hübner, 1823).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Doloploca punctulana

Doloploca punctulana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

on Ligustrum

parasite

Larvae among spun young leaves

host plants

Oleaceae, monophagous

Ligustrum vulgare.

The reference by Schütze and Swatschek to Berberis, Lonicera seems unconfirmed.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body ventrally light green, dorsally olive green with a pair of light green subdorsal length lines; head light brown, small black markings;ptothoracic plate greenush, black markings; pinacula not recognisable; see Swatschek

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Disqué (1905a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cnephasia genitalana

Cnephasia Pierce & Metcalfe, 1915

dover shade

polyphagous on herbs

parasite

Larvae among spun flowers,

host plants

Campanula; Centaurea; .Digitalis purpurea; Hieracium; Leucanthemum vulgare; Mentha; Ononis; Ranunculus; Scorzonera humilis; Senecio; Teucrium.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Yellowish grey with small black pinacula; see pinctures on Lepiforum.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).

Heterarthrus vikbergi

Heterarthrus vikbergi Liston, Mutanen & Viitasaari 2019

on Populus

mine

Irregular brown blotch mine, adjacent to the leaf margin. The solitary larva pupates in a circular cocoon (diameter 5-7 mm), that, under laboratory conditions, often dropped out ouf the leaf.

host plants

Salicaceae, monofaag

Populus balsaminfera.

distribution within Europe

Finland.

larva

The three sternites each with a brownish black spot; also the first two abdominal sternites with a vague spot.

references

Liston, Mutanen & Viitasaari (2019a).

Melampsora salicina

Melampsora salicina Desmazières, 1847

on Salix

parasite

Melampsora salicina is a collective term for all Melampsora species with a telia stage on willow.

references

Gäumann (1959a), Jage, Kruse, Kummer ao (2013a), Korytnianska & Popova (2012a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2003a).

Cnephasia conspersana

Cnephasia conspersana Douglas, 1846

coast shade

on Asteraceae (etc?)

parasite

Larvae in the old flower heads

host plants

Asteraceae, oligofaag

Antennaria dioica; Hieracium; Hypochaeris radicata; Leontodon hispidus; Leucanthemum vulgare; Pulicaria odora; Senecio; Taraxacum.

References to plants of different families, like Dryas octopetala; Helianthemum; Rhinanthus minor; Silene uniflora; Teucrium Trifolium pratense might stem from misidentifications in this notoriously difficult moth genus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Corley (2005a), Hancock & Bland (2015a).

Eana penziana

Eana penziana (Thunberg, 1791)

large mottled shade

polyphagous on low herbs

parasite

Larvae in a silken tube on or in the soil, feeding on the root collar.

host plants

Armeria maritima; Festuca ovina; Helianthemum canum; Hippocrepis; Lotus; Plantago maritima; Saxifraga rosacea.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body dark green; head reddish brown; prothoracic and anal plate, also the pinacula, black.

synonyms

Cnephasia penziana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a)Hancock & Bland (2015a), Schütze (1931a).

Eana incanana

Eana incanana (Stephens, 1852)

bluebell shade

on Hyacinthoides

parasite

The larva lives in a spinning the inflorescence

host plants

Asparagaceae, monophagous

Hyacinthoides non-scripta.

Given the specialised biology of the larva, references to host plants like Leucanthemum vulgare; Salix; Vaccinium are unlikely.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation probably as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body brown; head yellowish, with dark markings; prothoracic plate black with white markings; pinacula as small dark dots.

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019).

Tortricodes alternella

Tortricodes alternella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

winter shade

polyphagous on woody plants

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Betula; Carpinus betulus; Corylus avellana; Crataegus; Hippophae rhamnoides;Prunus spinosa; Quercus; Tilia; Ulmus minor.

phenology

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body ventrally whitish, dorsally reddish brown with three narrow whitish length lines; head dark brown, often with paler spots; prothoracic plate light brown, laterally dark brown; pinacula yellowish white; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cheimatophila, Tortricodes, tortricella (Hübner, 1796).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Swatschek (1958a).

Exapate duratella

Exapate duratella von Heyden, 1864

on Laric

parasite

The larva lives among spun needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Larix decidua.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body dirty green with two whitiah subdorsal length lines; head yellowish green, posteriorly with dark markings; prothoracic plate greenish with fine black marks; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Hancock & Bland (2015a), Kovács & Kovács (2001a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a) (1958a).

Exapate congelatella

Exapate congelatella (Clerck, 1759)

autumnal shade

broadly polyphagous

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Anthriscus; Berberis; Calluna; Chaerophyllum; Crataegus; Erica; Fragaria; Ligustrum; Malus; Myrica; Prunus spinosa; Quercus;Rhamnus cathartica; Ribes; Rubus; Salix; Syringa; Ulmus;
Vaccinium.

phenology

Univoltine;hibernation as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body light green with two whitish subdorsal length lines (sometimes colour brownish between these lines); head mottled light brown; prothoracic plate pale green with fine dark markings; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Neosphaleroptera nubilana

Neosphaleroptera nubilana (Hübner, 1799)

deep brown shade

on Crataegus, Malus, Prunus, etc.

parasite

Larvae among sun young leaves

host plants

Rosaceae, oligophagous

Crataegus; Malus domestica; Prunus armeniaca, domestica, spinosa; Pyrus communis.

References to Betula need confirmation.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as young larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body light green; head light brown; prothoracic plate light brown, hind margin often with dark brown spots; pinacula concolorous; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni

synonyms

Cnephasia nubilana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cochylimorpha woliniana

Cochylimorpha woliniana (Schleich, 1868)

on Artemisia

parasite

The larvae bore in the shoots; there also the hibernation.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Artemisia absinthium.

phenology

Univoltine

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body brownish white; head blackish brown; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Conchylis, Stenodes, woliniana.

references

Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cochylis posterana

Cochylis posterana Zeller, 1847

on distels

parasite

Larvae in the flower heads.

host plants

Asteraceae, o0ligophagous.

Arctium; Carduus acanthoides, nutans; Centaurea jacea; Cirsium vulgare.

phenology

Bivoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body brownish white, often with s reddish hue; head dark brown; prothoracic plate brown, margined black, median sulcus darkly punctuated; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Conchylis posterana.

references

Disqué (1905a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cochylidia richteriana

Cochylidia richteriana (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1837)

on Artemisia

parasite

The larvae live in the roots and root collar

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Artemisia vulgaris.

That the larve would also live in Achillea millefolium needs conformation.

phenology

Bivoltine, hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish white; head light brown; see Swatschek,

references

Bassi & Scaramozzino (1989a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a), Schütze (1931), Swatschek (1958a).

Anchinia cristalis

Anchinia cristalis (Scopoli, 1763)

on Daphne

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves

host plants

Thymelaeaceae, monophagous

Daphne mezereum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body dark grey with narrow median whitish length line; head light brown; prothoracic plate dark brown; pinacula black, bordered with white; see Lepiforum.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Buvat & Nel (1999a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Šumpich, Žemlička & Dvořák (2013a), Wimmer (1991a).

Aethes languidana

Aethes languidana (Mann, 1855)

on Helichrysum

parasite

The larva in a folded leaf

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Helichrysum italicum subsp. picardii.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body whitish; head and thoracic feet dark brown; prothoracic plate punctuated brown; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Phalonidia reversana (Staudinger, 1820).

references

Huertas Dionisio (2007a), Swatschek (1958a).

Eupoecilia cebrana

Eupoecilia cebrana (Hübner, 1813)

on Gnaphalium, Helichrysum

parasite

The larvae live in a silken tube in the inflorescence.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Gnaphalium; Helichrysum arenarium.

phenology

Bivoltine, hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish white; head blackish brown; prothoracic plate brown with black dots; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Conchylis cebrana.

references

Disqué (1905a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Eupoecilia sanguisorbana

Eupoecilia sanguisorbana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1856)

on Sanguisorba

parasite

The larvae bore in the flowerheads when they come into fruit.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Sanguisorba officinalis.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body reddish brown; head, prothoracic and anala plates dark brown; see Swatschek,

synonyms

Conchylis sanguisorbana.

references

Disqué (1905a), Huemer & Wiesner (1997a), Lepiforum (2019), Réal (1981a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Phtheochroa purana

Phtheochroa purana (Guenée, 1845)

on Cephalaria

parasite

Biology not described.

host plants

Caprifoliaceae, monophagous

Cephalaria leucantha.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish, dorsally reddish spots; head light brown; prothoracic plate yellowish, anal plate yellowish, dark-spotted (Swatschek)

synonyms

Hysterosia purana.

references

Swatschek (1958a.

Phtheochroa fulvicinctana

Phtheochroa fulvicinctana (Constant, 1893)

on Limonium

parasite

Biology not described.

host plants

Plumbaginaceae, monophagous

Limonium vulgare.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body reddish with two dorsal and two subdorsal light length lines; head, protoracic and anal plates brown. See Swatschek.

synonyms

Hysterosia fulvicinctana.

references

Lepiforum (2019), Swatschek (1958a), Trematerra & Sciarretia (2000a).

Phtheochroa pulvillana

Phtheochroa pulvillana Herrich-Schäffer, 1851

on Asparagus

parasite

Several larvae together bore in thuk stem and rhizome; here also the hibernation and pupation takes place.

host plants

Asparagaceae, monophagous

Asparagus officinalis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body witish; head light brown; see Lepiforum, Swatschek

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Hysterosia pulvillana.

references

Lepiforum (2019), Mazurkiewicz, Tumialis & Pezowicz (2013a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Šumpich, Žemlička & Dvořák (2013a), Šumpich ao (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Phtheochroa schreibersiana

Phtheochroa schreibersiana (Frölich, 1828)

scarce gold conch

on polyphagous ?

parasite

The biology is not sufficiently clear, neither is the host plant spectrum. The young larvae initially would live among the leaves, then bore into the young shoots that would slacken.

host plants

Populus nigra; Prunus padus; Ulmus.

phenology

Univotine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body pale yellowish brown; body yellowish brown; prothoracic plate centrally and along the hind margin darkly punctuated. see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Hysterosia schreibersiana.

notes

Schütze (1935a) repeatedly found the larvae in the galls of Colopha compressa!

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a, 1935a), Swatschek (1958a), Wieser (2004a).

Melampsora deformans

Melampsora deformans Leppik, 1949

parasite

Buhr points in his keys to this name, meaning a rust fungus that causes witches’ broom like malformations. The name is virtually unknown in the mycological literature. Gäumann supposes that the “species” applies to a witches broom that secondarily has been infected by some Melampsora.

references

Buhr (1964b, 1965a), Gäumann (1959a).

Acleris fimbriana

Acleris fimbriana (Thunberg, 1791)

on Malus, Prunus, Vaccinium

parasite

Larvae among spun young leaves.

host plants

Malus; Prunus spinosa; Vaccinium uliginosum.

phenology

Bivoltine; hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body dirty green; head dark brown; prothoracic plate dark brown, often darker at the margin; pinacula sometimes dark brown.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).

synonyms

Acalla fimbriana, lubricana (Mann, 1867).

notes

In China an important pest on apple.

references

Disqué (1905a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris hippophaeana

Acleris hippophaeana (von Heyden, 1865)

on Hippophae

parasite

Larva among young spun leaves.

host plants

Elaeagnaceae, monophagous

Hippophae rhamnoides.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body greyish white; head brown, laterally with black markings; prothoracic plate at hind margin somewhwat darker brown (Swatschek).

synonyms

Acalla hippophaeana.

references

Disqué (1905a), Lepiforum (2019)<>/a>, Pröse (1993a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris quercinana

Acleris quercinana (Zeller, 1849)

on Quercus

parasite

Larva among spun leaves.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus.

phenology

Univoltine; hobernation possibly as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body green, head and prothoracic plate dark brown; resembling the larva of Acleris ferrugana (Swatschek).

synonyms

Acalla quercinana.

references

Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a), Disqué (1905a), Pastorális, Elsner, Kopeček ao (2013a), Pröse (1993a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris effractana

Acleris effractana (Hübner, 1799)

grey notch-wing button, hook-winged tortrix moth

on Salix

parasite

Larva among spun leaves.

host plants

Salicaceae, monofaah

Salix cinerea, pentandra, cinerea.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Acleris stettinensis Leraut, 2003.

notes

This species has long been confused with Acleris emargana. For that reason there is no complete information available about its biology and host plant spectrum.

references

Hancock & Bland (2015a), Karsholt, Aarvik, Agassiz ao (2005a), Roweck & Savenkov (2007a), Svensson (2005a).

Acleris emargana

Acleris emargana (Fabricius, 1775)

notch-wing button

on Salix

parasite

Larva among spun leaves.

host plants

Salicaceae, oligophagous

Populus tremula; Salix caprea.

Only rarely on Populus tremula. Records from Betula may only be accidental.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation possibly as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body and prothoracic plate pale green; head pale honey coloured; pinacula inconspicuous. See Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acalla emargana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Karsholt, Aarvik, Agassiz ao (2005a), Lepiforum (2019)<>/a>, Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Murria Beltrán (2005a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris literana

Acleris literana (Linnaeus, 1758)

lichen button

on Quercus

parasite

Larva among spun leaves.

host plants

Fgaceae, monophagous

Quercus petraea, robur.

References to Acer, Betula, Malus, Tilia as host plants under natural conditions need confirmation.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva;

Body greenish; heaf yellow; prothoracic plate yellowish green with a dark spot; pinacula concolorous with body.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acalla literana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019)<>/a>, Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a), van Roosmalen, Wijker & Knijnsberg (2013a), Schütze (1931), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris maccana

Acleris maccana (Treitschke, 1835)

marbled button

on Ericaceae, Myrica

parasite

Larva in a silke tube on the leaves.

host plants

Ericaceae, Myricaceae, restricted polyphagous

Myrica gale; Rhododendron tomentosum; Vaccinium myrtillus, uliginosum, vitis-idaea.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body pale greenish blue; head brownish, black marking at rear angle; prothoracic plate brownish; pinacula concolorous with body but well recognisable.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a), Schütze (1931a), Wegner (2010a).

Acleris abietana

Acleris abietana (Hübner, 1822)

perth button

on Picea, etc.

parasite

Larva in a slight web amobg the needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Abies alba; Picea abies; Pinus sylvestris.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation probably as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body greyish brown; head and prothoracic plate light brown; pinacula dark brown.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

All European material that has been ascribed to Acleris nigrilineana Kawabe, 1963 upon check of its DNA has been shown to belong to A. abietana (M. Mutanen in Lepiforum).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a).

Acleris lorquiniana

Acleris lorquiniana (Duponchel, 1835)

marsh button

on Lythrum

parasite

The larva lives in a silken tube in the inflorescence.

host plants

Lythraceae, monophagous

Lythrum salicaria.

phenology

Bivoltine; hibernation presumably as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body translucent pale green, head very pale brown, prothoracic plate not differentiated, pinacula not recognisable.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a) , Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019)<>/a>, Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a), Triberti, Longo Turri, Adami & Zanetti (2017a).

Acleris rufana

Acleris rufana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

sweet-gale button

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Filipendula ulmaria; Myrica gale; Populus alba, x canescens; Rhododendron groenlandicum; Rubus fruticosus, idaeus; Salix caprea; Sanguisorba officinalis; Vaccinium uliginosum; Viburnum.

phenology

Univoltine, hibernation as imago,

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body pale yellowish brown; had and prothoracic plate chestnut brown; pinacula whitish.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a), Graham (2014a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a), Wegner (2010a).

Acleris lipsiana

Acleris lipsiana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

northern button

polyphagous on woody plants

parasite

Larvae in spinning om the leaves.

host plants

Andromeda polifolia; Betula pendula; Malus sylvestris; Myrica gale; Salix caprea, repens; Spiraea; Vaccinium myrtillus,vitis-idaea.

The English literature only mentions Myrica, Vaccinium, bur pictures on Lepiforum demonstrate a much wider spectrum.

phenology

Univotine, hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body slender, whitish; head chestnut brown; prothoracic plate black, anteriorly white-margined; pinacula inconspicuous.

synonyms

Acalla lipsiana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a, Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Pröse (1993a), Schütze (1931a).

Acleris hyemana

Acleris hyemana (Haworth, 1811)

heath button

on (Erica), Calluna

parasite

The larve lives in a densense spinning, that several times is replaced.

host plants

Ericaceae, oligophagous

Erica; Calluna vulgaris.

phenology

Univoltine, hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body pale green; head pale honey coloured; prothoracic plate not differentiated; pinacula inconspicuous. See also Swatschek.

synonyms

Acalla, Acleris, mixtana (Hübner, 1813).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a, Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Lepiforum (2019), Pröse (1993a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Acleris cristana

Acleris cristana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

tufted button

on Rosaceae

parasite

Larvae in folded or spun leaves

host plants

Rosaceae, oligophagous

Crataegus; Malus sylvestris; Prunus domestica, spinosa; Pyrus communis; Rosa; Sorbus aria, sambucifolia.

References to Carpinus betulus; Salix caprea; Ulmus are unlikely.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body pale green; heaf brown; prothoracic plate brown to black, hind margin darker; pinacula inconspicuous.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Schütze (1931a).

Acleris hastiana

Acleris hastiana (Linnaeus, 1758)

sallow button

on (Populus), Salix

parasite

Larvae in rolled or spun leaves.

host plants

Salicaceae, oligophagous

Populus alba; Salix alba, aurita, caprea, cinerea subsp. oleifolia, x fragilis, repens, viminalis.

References to Andromeda polifolia; Prunus spinosa; Rhamnus frangula; Vaccinium uliginosum are unlikely.

phenology

Bivoltine, hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body greenish white; head shiny brownish black; prothoracic plate dark brown but anteriorly to a variable degree white; pinacula inconspicuous. See also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acalla hastiana.

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Cleve (1979a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a, Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huertas Dionisio (2007a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Acleris umbrana

Acleris umbrana (Hübner, 1799)

dark-streaked button

polyphagous on woody plants

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Alnus glutinosa; Carpinus betulus; Cornus sanguinea; Crataegus; Prunus avium, padus, spinosa; Salix caprea; Sorbus aucuparia.

Only the relation with sloe has been recently affirmed by breeding; all other relations should be considered dubious.

phenology

One or two generations; the imago hibernates.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body pale green; head and prothoracic plate black, latter with median sulcus; mesonotum with two black suboval sclerites.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Pröse (1993a).

Acleris logiana

Acleris logiana (Clerck, 1759)

grey birch button, black headed birch leaffolder

on Betula

parasite

Larva among spun leaves.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula dahurica, pendula, platyphylla.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as imagp

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body transparent greenish white; head dar brown; prothoracic plate greenish white with large triangular dark brown marking; pinacula inconspicuous. See Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acalla niveana (Fabricius, 1787).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a, Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris kochiella

Acleris kochiella (Goeze, 1783)

elm button

on Ulmus

parasite

Larva among spun leaves or in an folded leaf.

host plants

Ulmaceae, monophagous

Ulmus glabra, minor.

phenology

Bivoltine; hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body green; head and prothoracic plate dark brown; pinacula pale; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni

synonyms

Acalla boscana (Fabricius, 1794).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Schütze (1931), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris permutana

Acleris permutana (Duponchel, 1836)

buff button

on Rosa

parasite

Larva among spun leaves

host plants

Rosaceae, ? monophagous

Rosa spinosissima.

Reports from Prunus spinosa need conformation.

phenology

Univotine; hibernation as egg?

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish green; head pale brown, laterally darker; prothoracic plate light brow, laterally with two spots; only the thoracic pinacula recognisable, brown.

synonyms

Acalla permutana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a) , Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Pröse (1993a), van Roosmalen, Wijker & Knijnsberg (2013a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Acleris variegana

Acleris variegana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

garden rose tortrix

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae in spun leaves or in a leaf fold.

host plants

preferably woody plants, in particular Rosaceae

Berberis; Carpinus betulus; Colutea gracilis; Corylus avellana;Crataegus; Cydonia; Dasiphora fruticosa; Hylotelephium maximum; Malus domestica; Populus tremula; Prunus armeniaca, avium, cerasus, domestica, dulcis, spinosa; Pyrus communis; Rhamnus cathartica; Rosa; Rubus idaeus; Salix; Sanguisorba minor; Ulmus; Vaccinium myrtillus, vitis-idaea.

phenology

Univoltine, hibernation as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body translucent greenish-brownish; head and prothoracic plate honey coloured; pinacula inconspicuous. See also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acalla variegana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a), Disqué (1905), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993q), Requena i Miret (1998a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris shepherdana

Acleris shepherdana (Stephens, 1852)

meadow-sweet button

on Filiendula etc.

parasite

Larva between spun leaflets.

host plants

Rosaceae, oligophagous

? Alchemilla; Aruncus dioicus; Filipendula ulmaria; Sanguisorba officinalis.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation probably as young larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Bpdy green, head yellowish brown; prothoracic plate greyish, hind margin darkened;pinacula inconspicuous. See also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acalla sheperdana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1981a, 1993a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris ferrugana

Acleris ferrugana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

rusty oak button

on Quercus

parasite

Larva between two spun leaves

host plants

Fagaceae, ? monophagous

? Fagus sylvatica; Quercus robur.

See the discussion by Erwin Rennwald on Lepiforum

phenology

Univoltine or bivoltine, hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body translucent pale green; head and prothoracic plate brown to black; pinacula inconspicuous. See also Swatschek/

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acalla ferrugana; Acalla litharyrana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a, Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993q), Swatschek (1958a), Szabóky & Csóka (2010a).

Acleris aspersana

Acleris aspersana (Hübner, 1817)

ginger button

polyphagous

parasite

Larva in a folded leaf or between some spun leaves.

host plants

mainly herbaceous Rosaceae, Cistaceae

Alchemilla vulgaris; Aruncus dioicus; Comarum palustre; Dryas octopetala; Filipendula ulmaria;Fragaria vesca; Geum; Helianthemum nummularium & subsp. obscurum; Malus sylvestris; Potentilla argentea, erecta, recta; Sanguisorba minor, officinalis.

, mentioned by Diakonff & Dorst, seems unlikely.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation probably as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body translucent pale brown or green; head and prothoracic plate honey coloured; pinacula inconspicuous. See also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acalla aspersana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993q), Rennwald in Lepiforum (2019), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris rhombana

Acleris rhombana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

rhomboid tortrix, fruit tree tortrix

on woody Rosaceae

parasite

The larvae initially bore in the buds; soon after they live in spun young leaves.

host plants

Rosaceae, oligophagous

Crataegus; Malus; Prunus laurocerasus, maahaleb, spinosa; Pyrus communis; Rosa; Sorbus.

Perhaps rarely also Corylus; Quercus.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body dirty green; head brown, posterolaterally darkly marked; prothoracic plate brown; pinacula inconspicuous. See also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acalla, Acleris, contaminana (Hübner, 1799).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a) , Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993q), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris sparsana

Acleris sparsana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

ashy button

polyphagous

parasite

Larve among spun leaves

host plants

Acer campestre, pseudoplatanus; Carpinus betulus; Fagus sylvatica; Quercus robur; Rubus idaeus; Sorbus aucuparia.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body, pinacula and anal plate green; head greenish brown; prothoracic plate geen with laterally black markings. See also Swatschek/

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acalla sponsana (Fabricius, 1787).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993q), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris caledoniana

Acleris caledoniana (Stephens, 1852)

caledonian button

broadly polyphagous

parasite

Larvae in spun leaves.

host plants

Alchemilla alpina; Comarum palustre; Myrica gale; ? Pinus contorta; Potentilla erecta; Rubus chamaemorus; Vaccinium myrtillus, vitis-idaea.

phenology

Univoltine, hibernation as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body and prothoracic plate green; head yellowish brown with postero-laterally black markings.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Graham (2014a), Hancock & Bland (2015a).

Acleris laterana

Acleris laterana (Fabricius, 1794)

dark-triangle button, broad-barred button moth

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Rhododendron; Vaccinium myrtillus.

These are the only more or less reliably established host plant. Moreover the following incoherent mix are mentioned: Crataegus; Filipendula ulmaria; Populus; Prunus; Rosa; Rubus; Salix; Sorbus; Symphytum officinale.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva or imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body pale green; head yellowish brown, laterally some black markings; prothoracic plate yellowish brown, hind margin with a blackish brown spot; anal plate and pinacula concolorous. See Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acleris latifasciana Haworth, 1811.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a, Hancock & Bland (2015a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993q), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris comariana

Acleris comariana (Lienig & Zeller, 1846)

strawberry tortrix

on kruidachtige Rosaceae

parasite

Larvae between folded leaves.

host plants

Rosaceae, oligophagous

Comarum palustre; Fragaria vesca; Geum rivale.

References to Rhododendron; Salix need conformation.

phenology

Bivoltine; hibernation as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body brownish yellow; head yellow, laterally marked with black; prothoracic plate yellowish brown with hind margin black; pinacula brown.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Diakonoff & Dorst (1982a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Kozlov & Kullberg (2010a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1993a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris holmiana

Acleris holmiana (Linnaeus, 1758)

white-triangle button, golden leaf roller moth

on woody Rosaceae

parasite

Larvae between sandwiched leaved or under a wub at the underside of a leaf.

host plants

Rosaceae, oligophagous

Cotoneaster; Crataegus; Cydonia; Malus domestica; Prunus spinosa; Pyrus;? Rosa; Rubus.

Schütze suspects that references to Rosa derive from confusion with Acleris bergamnniana.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellow to white; head and prothoracic plate brown, spotted with black; anal plate and pinacula inconspicuous (Swatschek).

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Acalla, Croesia, holmiana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schüztze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris forsskaleana

Acleris forsskaleana (Linnaeus, 1758)

maple button, maple leaftier

on Acer

parasite

Larvae in spun young leaves and flowers, later in folded leaves.

host plants

Sapindacae, monophagous

Acer campestre, platanoides, pseudoplatanus.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as young larva

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish white; head, prothoracic and anal plat pale greenish; pinacula inconspicuous, See also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Chroesia, Croesia, Tortrix, forsskaleana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Acleris bergmanniana

Acleris bergmanniana (Linnaeus, 1758)

yellow rose button

on Rosa

parasite

The larve lives amidst fresh spun leaves and flower buds.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Rosa canina, pendulina, rugosa, spinosissima.

References to Frangula alnus; Rhamnus cathartica need further confirmation.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body dirty yellow’ head, prothoracic and anal plate black; pinacula inconspicuous.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni

synonyms

Chroesia, Croesia, Tortrix, bergmanniana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schürze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2019a).

Aleimma loeflingiana

Aleimma loeflingiana (Linnaeus, 1758)

yellow oak button, pale yellow leafroller

on Quercus

parasite

The larvae live freely in rolled leaves.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus.

Records from Acer, Carpinus betulus probably are exceptional.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Tortrix loeflingiana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Tortrix viridana

Tortrix viridana Linnaeus, 1758

green oak tortrix

on Quercus

parasite

The young larvae bore into buds, but soon they live freely at the undersides of folded or inrolled leaves. In some years extremely numerous.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus canariensis, petraea, pubescens, robur, suber.

Especially in years of mass occurrence larvae may be found also on other tree species.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body green; head brownish black; prothoracic and anal plates pale brown to green. Pinacula brown, sometimes partly greenish brown (Swatschek).

puparium

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Mannai, Ezzine & Ben Jamâa (2018a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Spatalistis bifasciana

Spatalistis bifasciana (Hübner, 1787)

small purple button

polyphagous

parasite

According to several old sources the larvae bore into berries. However, recent Bitish observations indicate that the larvae feed on the withered leaves of oak and sweet chestnut.

host plants

Cornus mas; Ligustrum vulgare; Rhamnus cathartica; Vaccinium myrtillus, uliginosum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellow with large violet pinacula; head, prothoracic and anal plate brown, darkly margined,

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Šumpich (2011a), Swatschek (1958a).

Thiodia citrana

Thiodia citrana (Hübner, 1799)

lemon bell

on Achillea, etc.

parasite

The larvae live in en spinning on the inflorescence, taking the flower heads together. Sometimes a larva also bores into the peduncle. Hibernation and pupation in a cocoon among the litter.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Achillea cretica, millefolium; Artemisia campestris, vulgaris; Cota tinctoria; Tanacetum vulgare.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Semasia citrana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Schutze (1931a), Wimmer (1991a).

Eriopsela quadrana

Eriopsela quadrana (Hübner, 1813)

four-spot bell

on Solidago

parasite

A ground leaf is folded upwards and lengthwise, creating the impression of a tubular gall. The larva inside feeds on the leaf without damaging the lower epidermis. Hibernation and pupation in a cocoon among the litter.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Solidago virgaurea.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Steganoptycha quadrana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Wullaert (2017a).

Enarmonia formosana

Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli, 1763)

cherry-bark moth

on Rosaceae

parasite

The larva bores in the bark, especially in the thick bark at the foot of older trees en in places where the bark already is swollen by old wounds or cankers. The presence of the larve in its turn causes gumming and loosening of the bark. Reddish brown frass in bark fissures betrays the presence of the larva.

host plants

Rosaceae, oligophagous

Cydonia; Malus domestica; Prunus armeniaca, avium, cerasifera, cerasus, domestica, dulcis, laurocerasus, persica, serrulata; Pyracantha; Pyrus communis; Sorbus

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

See Patočka & Turčáni (2005a)

synonyms

Grapholitha woeberiana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Buhr (1965a), Dang & Parker (1990a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).

Incurvaria vetulella

Incurvaria vetulella (Zetterstedt, 1839)

on Vaccinium

mine

Oviposition by way of an ovipositor, no egg visible therefore. The larva makes a small blotch. Already after its first moult the larva makes an oval excision. Sandwiched herein it drops to the ground and continues feeding of dead leaves.

host plants

Ericaceae, monophagous

Vaccinium myrtillus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

notes

Mountain species.

references

Arbeitsgemeinschaft Microlepidoptera Bayern (2011a), Burmann (1943b), Junnilainen, Buchner, Kaitila & Mutanen (2019a), Kovács & Kovács (2000a), Kurz (2016a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2017a).

Paraclemensia cyanella

Paraclemensia cyanella (Zeller, 1850)

on Acer

mine

Oviposition by way of an ovipositor, no egg visible therefore. The larva makes a small blotch. Already after its first moult the larva makes an oval excision. Sandwiched herein it drops to the ground and continues feeding of dead leaves.

host plants

Sapindaceae, oligophagous

Acer campestre, monspessulanum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Baldizzone, Varalda & Donato (2010a), Kovács & Kovács (2000a), Wieser (2004a).

Celypha rurestrana

Celypha rurestrana (Duponchel, 1843)

hawkweed marble

on Hieracium

parasite

The larva bores in the taproot.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Hieracium umbellatum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Oletreutes lucivagana (Lienig & Zeller, 1846).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Schütze (1931a).

Celypha striana

Celypha striana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

barred marble

on Taraxacum

parasite

Initially the larva lives under a web at the outside of the taproot; later it lives within. It may cause the death of the plant.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Taraxacum officinale.

The occurrence on Plantago lanceolata need further confirmation.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Olehreutes striana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Corley, Rosete, Gonçalves ao (2016a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b) .

Piniphila bifasciana

Piniphila bifasciana (Hawoth, 1811)

pine marble

on Pinus

parasite

The larva bores in young shoots and in male inflorescences.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Pinus pinaster, sylvestris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Olethreuetes bifasciana.

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Requena i Miret (1998a).

Lobesia botrana

Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

european vine moth

polyphagous

parasite

The larvae spin the inflorescence together and bore into the fruits.

host plants

Berberis vulgaris; Clematis vitalba; Cornus sanguinea; Daphne gnidium; Hedera helix; Ligustrum vulgare; Lonicera; Ribes; Viburnum lantana; Vitis vinifera.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Polychrosis botrana.

notes

together with Eupoecilia ambiguella an important pest in viticulture.

references

Abd El-Monsef Ahmed Ibrahim (2004a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a) , Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huertas Dionisio (2007a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a).

Lobesia occidentis

Lobesia occidentis Falkovitsh, 1970

spurge marble

on Euphorbia

parasite

The larvae bore in a stem, after having loosely spun together the terminal leaves,

host plants

Euphorbiaceae, monophagous

Euphorbia amygdaloides, paralias.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Lobesiodes occidentis.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a). Hancock & Bland (2015b).

Zelkovaphis trinacriae

Zelkovaphis trinacriae Barbagallo, 2002

on Zelkova

gall

The leaves at the tip of a shoot are pale, thickened and scallop-shaped; they overlap and form a globular rosette. Aphids blackish brown; the progeny of the fundatrix is fully alate.

host plants

Ulmaceae, narrowly monophagous

Zelkova sicula.

distribution within Europe

Socily.

references

Aphid Species File (2019), Barbagallo, Cocuzza & Suma (2009a), Blackman & Eastop (2019), Campo, Mazzeo, Nucifora ao (2018a).

Endothenia quadrimaculana

Endothenia quadrimaculana (Hawoth, 1811)

blotched marble

on Mentha, Stachys

parasite

The larva bores in the root crown and in the rhizome; here also the hibernation and pupation.

host plants

Lamiaceae, oligophagous

Mentha spicata; Stachys palustris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Olehreutes antiquana (Hübner, 1822).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum (2019), Schutze (1931a).

Endothenia nigricostana

Endothenia nigricostana (Haworth, 1811)

black-edged marble

on Stachys

parasite

The larva bores in the stem; hibernation in the root or root crown, pupation in the stem.

host plants

Lamiaceae, oligophagous

Lamium; Stachys palustris, sylvatica.

Robbins also mentions Stachys officinalis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Olethreutes nigricostana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Huisman, Kuchlein, van Nieukerken ao (1986a), Lepiforum (2019), De Prins & Steeman (2013a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a)m Šumpich (2011a).

Endothenia ustulana

Endothenia ustulana (Haworth, 1811)

bugle marble

on Ajuga

parasite

The larva initially bore in the rhizome and hibernates there; in the spring it bores in the stem. Attacked plants are severely stunted.

host plants

Lamiaceae, monophagous

Ajuga reptans.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Huisman, Koster, Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2003a). Lepiforum (2019), Robbins (1991a).

Epiblema turbidana

Epiblema turbidana (Treitschke, 1835)

butterbur bell

on Petasites

parasite

The larvae bore in the root crown and in the roots. There also the hibernation; the pupation follows in a cocoon in the soil.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Petasites albus, hybridus, ? pyrenaicus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman & Koster (1999a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Huisman, Koster, Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2003a), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a).

Chromatomyia linnaeae

Chromatomyia linnaeae Griffiths, 1974

on Linnaea

mine

narrow gallery, soon widening into, and overrun by, an irregular upper surface blotch that may occupy a large part of the tiny leaf. Frass in dispersed grains. Puparium within the mine; the anterior spiracula penetrate the upper epidermis.

host plants

Caprifoliaceae, monophagous

Linnaea borealis.

distribution within Europe

Northern Finland, Sweden; described from Canada.

references

Griffiths (1974a), Itämies (1995a).

Endothenia marginana

Endothenia marginana (Haworth, 1811)

bordered marble

polyphagous

parasite

The lave live freely on the inflorescence, feeding on the developing fruits.

host plants

Galeopsis; Gentiana pneumonanthe; Pedicularis palustris, sylvatica; Plantago lanceolata; Rhinanthus minor;.

As is demonstrated by pictures of Rudolf Bryner in Lepiforum (2019), the larva also lives, like the one of E. gentianaena, also as a borer in the centre of the flower head of Dipsacus fullonum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Heckford (2010a), Koster & van Nieukerken (1998a), Laasonen & Laasonen (1995a).

Endothenia oblongana

Endothenia oblongana (Haworth, 1811)

downland marble

on Plantago (etc.?)

parasite

The larvae bore in the rootstock.

host plants

polyphagous?

Knautia arvensis; Plantago lanceolata.

Records from other plants, especially when it implies references to flower heads, need further scrutiny: Centaurea jacea, nigra; Cirsium oleraceum, palustre; Dipsacus fullonum; Galeopsis; Odontites vernus, vulgaris; Pedicularis; Scabiosa; Stachys officinalis; Succisa; Verbascum thapsus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Olethreutes oblongana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Heckford (2010a), Koster & van Nieukerken (1998a), Laasonen & Laasonen (1995a).

Endothenia gentianaeana

Endothenia gentianaeana (Hübner, 1799)

teasel marble

on Dipsacus

parasite

One solitary larva lives in the interior of the flower head or in the peduncle just below, feeding on the pith. Here also the hibernation and pupation.

host plants

Caprifoliaceae, monophagous

Dipsacus fullonum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Olethreutes gentianaeana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2003a, 2004a), Koster & van Nieukerken (1998a).

Bactra furfurana

Bactra furfurana (Haworth, 1811)

mottled marble

on Eleocharis, Juncus

parasite

The larva lives as a stem borer; also pupa in a the stem, in a slight cocoon. Affected stems turn yellow.

host plants

Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, restricted polyphagous

Eleocharis palustris; Juncus conglomeratus.

References to Schoenoplectus lacustris are incorrect (Hancock & Bland).

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a), Martin & Stoecklin (2014a).

Myelois circumvoluta

Myelois circumvoluta (Fourcroy, 1785)

thistle ermine

on thistles

parasite

The larvae develop in the flower heads; once fully fed they descend in the peduncle below for the hibernation and pupation.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Arctium; Carlina acaulis subsp. caulescens; Centaurea scabiosa; Cirsium eriophorum, vulgare; Jurinea cyanoides; Onopordum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Myelois cribrella (Hübner 1796).

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Harizanova, Stoeva, Cristofaro ao (2010a), Lepiforum, Mellini (1951a), Schütze (1931a), Wegner (2010a).

Dichrorampha aeratana

Dichrorampha aeratana (Pierce & Metcalfe, 1915)

obscure drill

on Leucanthemum

parasite

The larvae bore in the roots, without inflicting recognisable damage to the plants. The larva hibernates in the root, then pupates in a cocoon in the soil.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Leucanthemum vulgare.

Records from Tanacetum vulgareare doubted by van Nieukerken ao.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum, van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a), De Prins (1974a), Wegner (2010a).

Grapholita compositella

Grapholita compositella (Fabricius, 1775)

triple-stripe piercer. clover seed moth

on Fabaceae

parasite

The larvae of the first generation, in early summer, live in an upwards running gallery in the stem; the larvae of the second generation leave among spun leaves or flowers.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Astragalus cicer; Lotus corniculatus; Medicago sativa; Melilotus; Trifolium pratense, repens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia, Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, compositella.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum, Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Bactra robustana

Bactra robustana (Christoph, 1872)

saltern marble

on Bolboschoenus

parasite

Larvae in the stems and rhizomes. Pupation in the stem; affected stems turn yellow.

host plants

Cyperaceae, monophagous

Bolboschoenus maritimus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Corley (2005a), Gerstberger (2003a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Martin & Stoecklin (2014a), Ricker (2010a), Szőcs (1977a), Wegner (2010a).

Grapholita tenebrosana

Grapholita tenebrosana Duponchel, 1843

deep-brown piercer, rose-hip tortricid, briar moth

on Rosa, (Sorbus)

parasite

The larva bores in the pulp of the hip, just below the epidermis. The mine is recognisable as a brown line; later the hip turns wrinkled and dark brown coloured. Hibernation and pupation in a cocoon, attached to a branch.

host plants

Rosaceae, oligophagous

Rosa canina, rugosa; Sorbus aucuparia.

Only rarely on Sorbus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia, Grapholitha tenebrosana; Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, roseticolana Zeller, 1849.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a), Lepiforum (2019), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Cydia succedana

Cydia succedana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

gorse pod moth

on Ulex.etc/

parasite

The larvae develop in the pods.

host plants

Fabaceae, monophagous

Cytisus scoparius;Genista anglica, sagittalis, tinctoria; Lembotropis nigricans; Lotus corniculatus; Ulex europaeus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Grapholitha, Laspeyresia, succedana.

larva

Body whitish; head light brown, laterally with dark spots; prothoracic and anal plates brownish with dark punctuations; pinacula weak, light brown (Swatschek).

references

Disqué (1905a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Bactra lancealana

Bactra lancealana (Hübner, 1799)

rush marble

on Cyperaceae, Juncaceae

parasite

larvae bore in the stem and in the rhizome; here also the hibernation and pupation.

host plants

restricted polyphagous

Carex riparia; Cyperus longus; Eriophorum angustifolium; Juncus articulatus, conglomeratus, squarrosus; Schoenoplectus lacustris; Trichophorum cespitosum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Martin & Stoecklin (2014a), Schütze (1931a), Triberti, Longo Turri, Adami & Zanetti (2017a), Wegner (2010a).

Cydia nigricana

Cydia nigricana (Fabricius, 1794)

pea moth

on pea etc.

parasite

The larvae bore within in the pods into the ripening seeds. Hibernation and pupation in a cocoon in the soil.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Lathyrus japonicus, odoratus, pratensis; Lupinus; Pisum sativum; Vicia.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Picture on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Laspeyresia nigricana; Cydia rusticella (Clerck, 1759).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Hering (1957a), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Lepiforum (2019), Maček (1999a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Grapholita lunulana

Grapholita lunulana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

northern cresent piercer

on Fabaceae

parasite

The larvae bore in the pods; hibernation and pupation in a cocoon among the litter.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Lathyrus japonicus, linifolius, pratensis, tuberosis; Pisum sativum; Vicia cracca.

Records of Trifolium are unlikely.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body orange; headm, prothoracic and anal plates brown; pinacula concolorous, on the thorax sometimes brown; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cydia lunulana; Grapholitha, Laspeyresia dorsana auct. nec (Fabricius, 1775).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Ptycholomoides aeriferana

Ptycholomoides aeriferana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851)

yellow larch tortrix

on Larix

parasite

The larva lives between spun needles; here also the pupation.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Larix decidua.

Reports from Acer platanoides, pseudoplatanus, Betula need confirmation.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body green; prothoracic plate brown, medially black; anal plate yellowish green; see also Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Pseudargyrotoza conwagana

Pseudargyrotoza conwagana (Fabricius, 1775)

yellow-spot tortrix

on Fraxinus, Ligustrum, Syringa

parasite

The larvae bore the fruits, feeding on the seeds.

host plants

Oleaceae, oligophagous

Fraxinus excelsior; Ligustrum vulgare; Syringa vulgaris.

The often repeated reference to Berberis vulgaris needs confirmation.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish; head and prothoracic plate yellowish brown; pinacula and stigmata barely visible; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Tortrix conwayana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Tetranychus urticae

Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836

two spotted spider mite

broadly polyphagous

Tetranychus urticae on Nerium oleander

Nerium oleander, Hungary, Győr, 12.vii.201 © László Érsek

Tetranychus urticae on Nerium oleander

unfolding bud

Tetranychus urticae on Nerium oleander

the leaves are covered with a thin webbing, in which exuvia are trapped

Tetranychus urticae: mite

mite

Tetranychus urticae on Nerium oleander

Nerium oleander, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 1.v.2011 © László Érsek; also the woody parts of the plant may be covered by webbing.

parasite

The mites live freely on the leaves, under a thin web.

host plants

Nerium oleander; Phaseolus vulgaris.

Only a few of the many hundreds of plant species that have been recorded as hosts of this mite!

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

notes

Especially in greenhouses a serious pest species.

references

Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a).

Falseuncaria ruficiliana

Falseuncaria ruficiliana (Haworth, 1811)

red-fringed conch

on herbs

parasite

The larvae bore in the fruits.

host plants

Antirrhinum; ? Bellis perennis; ? Galatella linosyris; Gentiana verna; ? Inula helenium; Linaria vulgaris; Pedicularis sylvatica; Primula farinosa, veris; Rhinanthus minor; ? Solidago virgaurea.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish white; head brown to black; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Conchylis ciliella (Hübner, 1796).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cochylis pallidana

Cochylis pallidana Zeller, 1847

sheep’s-bit conch

on Jasione

parasite

Larvae in the flowers and fruits; hibernation and pupation in a cocoon among the litter.

host plants

Campanulaceae, monophagous

Jasione montana.

That the larva also live on Campanula as is stated by Kasy, is not repeated elsewhere.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2003a), Kasy (1987a), Wegner (2010a).

Cochylis hybridella

Cochylis hybridella (Hübner, 1813)

white-bodied conch

on Crepis, Helminthotheca, Picris

parasite

Larvae in the flower heads. Hibernation and pupation in a cocoon among the litter.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Crepis; Helminthotheca echioides; Picris hieracioides.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellow, dorsally reddish; head yellowish brown; prothoracic plate yellowish, hind margin darker of with two dark spots; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Conchylis hybridella.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Lepiforum (2019), Requena i Miret (1998a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cochylis molliculana

Cochylis molliculana Zeller, 1847

ox-tongue conch

on Helminthotheca

parasite

Larvae in the flowers heads.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Helminthotheca echioides.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

phenology

Two generations. The first generation pupates in a cocoon in the flower head; the second generation makes a cocoon among the litter and pupates after the hibernation.

references

Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a).

Cochylis dubitana

Cochylis dubitana (Hübner, 1799)

little conch

on Asteraceae

parasite

Larvae in the flower heads.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Arctium lappa; Carduus acanthoides, nutans; Centaurea jacea; Cirsium vulgare; Crepis; Hieracium; Picris; Senecio; Solidago virgaurea.

phenology

Bivoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Booy brownish white to white; head brown; prothoracic plate light brown, darker at the margins; anal plate with dark punctuations; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Conchylis dubitana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cochylis flaviciliana

Cochylis flaviciliana (Westwood, 1854)

gold-fringed conch

on Knautia, Succisa

parasite

The larvae live in the flower heads; hibernation and pupation in a cocoon among the litter.

host plants

Caprifoliaceae, oligophagous

Knautia arvensis; Succisa pratensis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Murria Beltrán (2005a), Wimmer (2007a).

Cochylis roseana

Cochylis roseana (Haworth, 1811)

rosy conch

on Dipsacus

parasite

The larva bores a spiralling, silken-lined gallery through the fruits at the outside of the flower head; here also the hibernation and pupation.

host plants

Caprifoliaceae, monophagous

Dipsacus fullonum.

Records from Antirrhinum; Aster; Solidago need conformation.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body dirty brown, head brown; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Conchylis roseana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman & Koster (1999a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cochylidia rupicola

Cochylidia rupicola (Curtis, 1834)

hemp-agrimony conch

on Eupatorium, etc.

parasite

The larvae live in the flowers, feeding on the developing fruits. Hibernation and puption in a dry broken stem.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Eupatorium cannabinum; Galatella linosyris.

The species is reported also from Agrimonia; Lycopus europaeus (Rosaceae, Lamiaceae) The biology of the larvae here is not described.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish white; head light brown; prothoracic plate yellowish; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Conchylis rupicola.

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Swatschek (1958a).

Cochylidia heydeniana

Cochylidia heydeniana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851)

blue-fleabane conch

on Erigeron

parasite

The larvae of the first generation live in the flower heads; those of the second generation live in the peduncle; there also they hibernate and pupate.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Erigeron acris, canadensis.

From Spain also mentioned from Dittrichia viscosa; Pulicaria dysenterica; Solidago virgaurea.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huertas Dionisio (2007a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Requena i Miret (1998a).

Cochylidia implicitana

Cochylidia implicitana (Wocke, 1856)

chamomile conch

on Asteraceae

parasite

The larva lives from autumn till spring as borer in the stem; here also the pupation.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligofaag

Achillea; Anthemis cotula; Artemisia campestris; Aster; Chrysanthemum; Gnaphalium; Matricaria chamomilla; Solidago virgaurea; Tripleurospermum inodorum, maritimum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body light yellow; head light brown; prothoracic plate yellowish, hind margin with two black spots or entirely darkened; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Conchylis implicitana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Eupoecilia ambiguella

Eupoecilia ambiguella (Hübner, 1796)

vine moth, european grape berry moth

polyphagous on berry bearing plants

parasite

The larvae live within the berries, feeding on the pulp and the seeds.

host plants

Acer campestre; Cornus mas, sanguinea; Frangula alnus; Hedera helix; Ligustrum; Lonicera periclymenum; Syringa x persica; Viburnum; Vitis vinifera

These are only the species that are mentioned most.

phenology

In northern Europe the species has one generation, but further to the south two or three.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body brownish white; head an prothoracic plate blackish brown; anal plate and pinacula brown; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Conchylis ambiguella.

notes

In regions where wine is cultivated an important pest. The larvae of the first generation spin flowers and young fruits together; later larvae bore in the fruits.

references

Abd El-Monsef Ahmed Ibrahim (2004a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Molet & Mackesy (2014a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Eupoecilia angustana

Eupoecilia angustana (Hübner, 1799)

marbled conch

polyphagous on low pants

parasite

The larvae live freely on flowers, neld together with silk, in the inflorescence, feeding on the developing fruits. Here also they hibernate and finally pupate.

host plants

Achillea millefolium; Calluna vulgaris; Origanum vulgare; Plantago; Solidago virgaurea; Thymus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body ± yellowish brown; head and prothoracic plate dark brown; anal plate brown; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Euxanthis angustana; Eupoecilia fasciella (Donovan, 1808).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Agapeta zoegana

Agapeta zoegana (Linnaeus, 1767)

sulphur knapweed moth

on Asteraceae, Caprifoliaceae

parasite

The larva bores in the roots; there also the hibernation and pupation.

host plants

Asteraceae, Caprifoliaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Centaurea jacea, nigra, paniculata; Jurinea; Knautia arvensis; Scabiosa columbaria; Serratula tinctoria.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish white; head ochraceous to yellowish brown, without lateral markings; prothoracic and anal plates yellowish; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Euxanthis zoegana.

notes

Huisman ao (2005a) write that the larvae would live in the seed heads of Dipsacus fullonum; this seems to be a mistake.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2005a), Muller (1989a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Swatschek (1958a).

Agapeta hamana

Agapeta hamana (Linnaeus, 758)

common yellow conch

on Carduus, Cirsium

parasite

The larvae bore in the roots; mostly there also the hibernation and pupation takes place.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Carduus; Cirsium.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Euxanthis hamana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a), Schütze (1931a).

Gynnidomorpha alismana

Gynnidomorpha alismana (Ragonot, 1883)

water-plantain conch

on Alisma

parasite

The lava lives as a borer in the stem; there also the hibernation, in a silken cocoon, and the pupation

host plants

Alismataceae, monophagous

Alisma plantago-aquatica.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

pupa

Zie Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Phalonidia alismana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins, Steeman & Sierens (2016a).

Gynnidomorpha vectisana

Gynnidomorpha vectisana (Humphreys & Westwood, 1845)

small saltern conch

on Triglochin

parasite

The larvae of the first generation, in early summer, live freely in the inflorescence. Those of the autumn generation live as stem borers and hibernate in the roots; infected stems turn yellow and have straw coloured frass at their base.

host plants

Juncaginaceae, monophagous

Triglochin maritima, palustris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Phalonidia vectisana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1873a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman & Koster (1996a), Gerstberger (2003a), Ricker (2010a), Wegner (2010a).

Gynnidomorpha minimana

Gynnidomorpha minimana (Caradja, 1916)

fen conch

on Menyanthes, Pedicularis, Triglochin

parasite

The larvae develop als borers in the stem, perhaps also in the fruits.

host plants

polyphagous

Menyanthes trifoliata; .Pedicularis palustris; Triglochin

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Phalonidia minimana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2005a), Itämies (2011a), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a), Triberti, Longo Turri, Adami & Zanetti (2017a) .

Phalonidia curvistrigana

Phalonidia curvistrigana (Stanton, 1859)

golden-rod conch

on Solidago

parasite

The larvae live in the flower heads, feeding on the young achenes; their presence is not very conspicuous from the outside. They hibernate in a cocoon in the litter.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Solidago virgaurea.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body pale brown; head brown; prothoracic and anal plate paler, darkly punctuated; see Swatschek/

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Brevisociaria, Conchylis, curvistrigana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Phalonidia affinitana

Phalonidia affinitana (Douglas, 1846)

large saltmarsh conch

on sea aster

parasite

Oviposition on a flower head. The young larva for a short time lives within the head, then descends as a borer in the stem, sometimes as far as into the root.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Tripolium pannonicum subsp. tripolium (“Aster tripolium”).

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body whitish, shortly before pupation somewhat reddish; head brown; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Conchylis affinitana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Gerstberger (2003a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Hering (1928a), Kasy (1959a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Ricker (2010a), Sønderup (1949a), Swatschek (1958a), Szőcs (1977a), Wegner (2010a).

Phalonidia udana

Phalonidia udana (Guenée, 1845)

loosestrife conch

on Lysimachia

parasite

The larva bores in the stem; there also the hibernation, then the pupation.

host plants

Primulaceae, monophagous

Lysimachia thyrsiflora, vulgaris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body dirty white with five unsharp light red length lines; head, protohoracic and anal plates light brown. See Swatschek.

synonyms

Conchylis udana.

references

Disque (1905a), Fazekas (2014a), Groenen, Huisman & Doorenweerd (2013a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Mutanen, Aarvik, Huemer ao (2012a), Swatschek (1958a).

Phalonidia manniana

Phalonidia manniana (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1839)

water-mint conch

on Lycopus, Mentha

parasite

The larva bores in the stem; there also the hibernation and pupation.

host plants

Lamiaceae, oligophagous

Lycopus europaeus; Mentha aquatica, longifolia, x piperita.

References in the literature from Alisma plantago-aquatica; Butomus umbellatus; Inula are doubtful.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Conchylis manniana.

notes

Until the study by Mutanen ao generally confused with Ph. udana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Fazekas (2014a), Groenen, Huisman & Doorenweerd (2013a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Mutanen, Aarvik, Huemer ao (2012a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Triberti, Longo Turri, Adami & Zanetti (2017a) .

Phtheochroa sodaliana

Phtheochroa sodaliana (Haworth, 1811)

buckthorn conch

on Frangula, Rhamnus

parasite

De larvae live in the berries, feeding on the seeds. They spin berries together and move from the on to the other. Infected berries darken prematurely. The larva hibernates in a cocoon among the litter.

host plants

Rhamnaceae, oligophagous

Frangula alnus; Rhamnus cathartica.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body red, segment limits greenish; head light brown; prothoracic plate darker, hind margin darkly stippled; pinacula pale. See Hinneberg, Swatschek.

synonyms

Hysterosia sodaliana; Phtheochroa amandana Herrich-Schäffer, 1851.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Hinneberg (1901a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Aethes deutschiana

Aethes deutschiana (Zetterstedt, 1839)

on Bartsia

parasite

The larvae feed on the fruits, initially as borers, later from the outside. Pupation external.

host plants

Orobanchaceae, monophagous

Bartsia alpina.

That the species would live on Centaurea phrygia subsp. pseudophrygia (Bassi & Scaramozzino) is probably not anymore accepted.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bassi & Scaramozzino (1989a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Molau, Eriksen & Teilmann Knudsen (1989a), Taylor & Rumsey (2003a).

Aethes aurofasciana

Aethes aurofasciana (Mann, 1855)

on Gentiana

parasite

The larvae bore in the root collar, making from there blotchy mines into the leaves of the ground rosette. The leaves partly turn yellow, flowers may wilt prematurely. Pupation in the plant (Rudolf Bryner in Lepiforum, 2019)

host plants

Gentianaceae, monophagous

Gentiana acaulis, clusii.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Kovács & Kovács (2006a).

Aethes kindermanniana

Aethes kindermanniana (Treitschke, 1830)

on Asteraceae

parasite

The larva lives freely on the spun flower heads, feeding on the fruits.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Artemisia campestris; Leucanthemum vulgare; Tanacetum vulgare.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Conchylis kindermanniana.

larva

Body dirty grey; head blackish brown; prothoracic plate brownish, darky punctuated and with darker hind margin; anal plate brownish; see Swatschek.

references

Disqué (1905a), Farkas (2008a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Aethes rubigana

Aethes rubigana (Treitschke, 1830)

burdock conch

on burdock, thistles

parasite

The larva bores in the flower heads after flowering has ended, feeding on the fruits. Then it bores into a stem, awaiting the hibernation; there also the pupation.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Arctium lappa, minus; Cirsium oleraceum, vulgare.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Mody dirt yellowish white; head, prothoracic and anal plates brown; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Aethes badiana Hübner, 1822.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Farkas (2009a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Swatschek (1958a).

Aethes cnicana

Aethes cnicana (Westwood, 1854)

thistle conch

on thistles

parasite

The larva bores in the flower heads after flowering has ended, feeding on the fruits. Then it bores into a stem, awaiting the hibernation; there also the pupation.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Carduus; Cirsium oleraceum, palustre, vulgare.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body brownish white; head light brown; prothoracic plate brownish, hind margin darker; anal plate without markings; see Swatschek

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Conchylis cnicana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Fazekas (2008a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Aethes bilbaensis

Aethes bilbaensis (Rössler, 1877)

samphire conch

on Apiaceae

parasite

The larva lives freely on the umbels after flowering has ended, feeding on the fruits. Then it bores into a stem, awaiting the hibernation; there also the pupation.

host plants

Apiaceae, oligophagous

Carum carvi, verticillatum; Crithmum maritimum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Fazekas (2008a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Razowski (1962a), Wullaert (2018a).

Aethes francillana

Aethes francillana (Fabricius, 1794)

long-barred yellow conch

on Apiaceae

parasite

The larva lives freely on the umbels after flowering has ended, feeding on the fruits. Then it bores into a stem, awaiting the hibernation; there also the pupation.

host plants

Apiaceae, oligophagous

Angelica sylvestris; Astydamia latifolia; Conium maculatum; Crithmum maritimum; Daucus carota; Elaeoselinum meoides; Eryngium campestre; Pastinaca sativa; Peucedanum officinale.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Fazekas (2008a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a) (2005a), Razowski (1962a), Wegner (2010a) .

Aethes flagellana

Aethes flagellana (Dupunchel, 1836)

on Eryngium

parasite

The descriptions of he biology are contradictory. Probably the larva lives freely on the inflorescence after flowering has ended, feeding in the fruits, then bores into the stem in anticipation of the hibernation.

host plants

Apiaceae, monofaag

Eryngium campestre.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Lozopera flagellana.

references

Corley, Rosete, Gonçalves ao (2016a), Disqué (1905a), Farkas (2008a), Huisman & Koster (1996a), Huisman, Koster, Muus & van Nieukerken (2013a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Razowski (1962a), Requena i Miret (1998a).

Aethes dilucidana

Aethes dilucidana (Stephens, 1852)

short-barred yellow conch

on hogweed, parsnip, etc.

parasite

The larvae live on the umbels after flowering has finished, feeding on the fruits.

host plants

Apiaceae, oligophagous

Heracleum sphondylium; Pastinaca sativa; Peucedanum oreoselinum.

phenology

Before hibernation the larva bores into a stem.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Farkas (2008a), Gielis, Huisman, Kuchlein ao (1985a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2003a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Razowski (1962a).

Aethes sanguinana

Aethes sanguinana (Treitschke, 1830)

on Eryngium

parasite

The larvae bore in the stem

host plants

Apiaceae, monophagous

Eryngium campestre.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body dirty yellow; head, prothoracic plate, thoracic feet and stigmata black, pinaculaa black with black setae; see Swatschek.

references

Corley, Marabuto, Maravalhas ao (2008a), Farkas (2008a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Swatschek (1958a).

Aethes tesserana

Aethes tesserana (Denis & Schiffermüller,1775)

downland conch

on hawkweed etc.

parasite

the larvae live as root borers.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Crepis; Helminthotheca echioides; Hieracium; Inula conyzae; Picris hieracioides.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellowish white; head yellowish brown; prothoracic plate yellow; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Conchylis alcella (Fabricius, 1781).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Farks (2008a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Swatschek (1958a).

Aethes smeathmanniana

Aethes smeathmanniana (Fabricius, 1781)

yarrow conch

on yarrow, etc.

parasite

The larvae live in a silken tube on the fruiting flower heads or umbels, feeding on the achenes.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Achillea millefolium; Anthemis arvensis, cotula; Centaurea nigra; Lactuca sativa.

phenology

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Bost brownish grey; head blackish brown; prothoracic and anal plate brown; with dark dots; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Conhylis smeathmanniana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Fazekas (200a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Aethes margaritana

Aethes margaritana (Haworth, 1811)

silver coast conch

on Achillea etc.

parasite

Larvae free on the flower heads and fruits.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Achillea millefolium; Leucanthemum vulgare; Matricaria chamomilla; Tanacetum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body diry greenish grey; head yellowish brown; prothoracic plate yellowish brown with dark points; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Conchylis dipoltella (Hübner, 1813).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Fazekas (200a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Koster, Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2003a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Aethes williana

Aethes williana (Brahm, 1791)

silver carrot conch

polyphagous

parasite

The larva bores in the lower part of the stem, from there descending into the root.

host plants

Apiaceae, Asteraceae

Daucus carota; Eryngium campestre; Ferula; Gnaphalium sylvaticum; Helichrysum arenarium.

phenology

In the UK one generation (larvae from August till April), in Hungary two.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellow; head light to dark brown; prothoracic plate yellowish; anal plate with dark point; see Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni

synonyms

Conchylis zephyrana (Treitschke, 1830).

notes

Sometimes a pest on Daucus.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Fazekas (2008a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Huisman, Kuchlein, van Nieukerken ao (1986a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Aethes margarotana

Aethes margarotana (Duponchel, 1836)

shore conch

on Eryngium

parasite

Larvae in the roots.

host plants

Apiaceae, monophagous

Eryngium campestre, maritimum.

phenology

Univoltine; larva from September till March.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Fazekas (2008a), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a).

Aethes piercei

Aethes piercei Obraztsov, 1952

devil’s-bit conch

on Succisa

parasite

The larvae develop in the roots.

host plants

Caprifoliaceae, monophagous

Succisa pratensis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Aethes hartmanniana f. piercei.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Fazekas (2008a,b), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), De Prins (1981a).

Aethes hartmanniana

Aethes hartmanniana (Clerck, 1759)

scabious conch

on Knautia, Scabiosa

parasite

The larvae develop in the rootstock

host plants

Caprifoliaceae, oligophagous

Knautia arvensis; Scabiosa columbaria, ochroleuca; Succisa pratensis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

larva

Body yellow; head light brown; prothoracic plate ± yellowish brown; pinacula conspicuous, large and dark; see Swatschek.

synonyms

Chlidonia, Conchylis, hartmanniana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Fazekas (2008a,b), Hancock & Bland (2015a), Kovács & Kovács (2006a), De Prins (1981a), Swatschek (1958a).

Anguina pacificae

Anguina pacificae Cid del Prado Vera & Maggenti, 1984

on Agrostis, Poa

parasite

Green galls at the base of the stems. Many galls contained, next to nematies, a creamy mass of bacteria.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Agrostis canina; Ochlopoa annua.

distribution within Europe

Ireland.

references

Cid del Prado Vera & Maggenti (1984a), Fleming, Maule, Martin ao (2015a).

Cenopalpus scoopsetus

Cenopalpus scoopsetus Hatzinikolis & Papadoulis, 1999

on Erica

parasite

The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage.

host plants

Ericaceae, monophagous

Erica manipuliflora.

distribution within Europe

Crete.

references

Hatzinikolis & Papadoulis (1999a).

Cenopalpus arbuti

Cenopalpus arbuti Hatzinikolis & Emmanouel 1987

on Arbutus (Cercis)

Cwnopal;us arbuti

mite, dorsal view (from Hatzinikolis, Papadoulis & Panou)

parasite

The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage.

host plants

Ericaceae, ? monophagous

Arbutus unedo.

Slightly different mites found also on Cercis siliquastrum (Fabaceae)

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Hatzinikolis & Emmanouel (1987a), Hatzinikolis, Papadoulis & Panou (2009a).

Dasyneuriola prolifica

Dasyneuriola prolifica Dorchin & Danon, 2019

on Suaeda

Dasyneuriola prolifica: gall on Suaeda vera

Suaeda vera, galled terminal bud (from Dorchin ao)

parasite

1-2 cm sized galling of terminal and lateral buds. Between the thickened and widened leaves live 3-30 light orange larvae. Pupation in white silken cocoons in the gall. Multivoltine.

host plants

Amaranthaceae, monophagous

Suaeda asphaltica, vera.

distribution within Europe

Canary Islands, Spain, Israel.

larva

Dasyneuriola prolifica: spatula

spatula and associated papillae (from Dorchin ao)

references

Dorchin, Danon & Dor (2019a).

Tenuipalpus punicae

Tenuipalpus punicae Pritchard & Baker, 1958

on Punica

Tenuipalpus punicae

mite, dorsal view (from Ueckermann ao)

parasite

The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage.

host plants

Lythraceae, monophagous

Punica granatum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Raissi Ardali, Hadizadeh, Mohammadi Sharif & Khanjani (2014a), Ueckermann, Palevsky, Gerson ao (2018a).

Cenopalpus lanceolatisetae

Cenopalpus lanceolatisetae (Attiah, 1956)

polyphagous

Cenopalpus lanceolatisetae

mite, dorsal view (from Ueckermann ao)

parasite

The mites are vagrants on the above-ground parts of the plant.

host plants

Alnus subcordata; Cotoneaster; Crataegus azarolus; Cydonia oblonga; Malus dometica, sylvestris; Punica granatum; Prunus armeniaca, domestica & subsp. insititia, persica, salicina; Pyrus communis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Hatzinikolis & Emmanouel (1987a), Raissi Ardali, Hadizadeh, Mohammadi Sharif & Khanjani (2014a), Ueckermann, Palevsky, Gerson ao (2018a).

Brevipalpus phoenicis

Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939)

polyphagous

parasite

The mites are vagrants on all above-ground pat of the plant; the leaves may turn brown and drop, the fruits may remain small and have scabby spots.

host plants

Citrus reticulata, sinensis; Passiflora edulis; Phoenix canariensis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Brevipalpus yothersi (Baker, 1949).

references

Childers, French & Rodrigues (2003a), Ueckermann, Palevsky, Gerson ao (2018a) .

Brevipalpus obovatus

Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, 1875

polyphagous, mainly on Citrus

Brevipalpus obovatus

mite, dorsal view (from Ueckermann, Palevsky, Gerson ao)

parasite

The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage.

host plants

Alnus subcordata; Borago officinalis; Campsis grandiflora; Citrus; Erythrina crista-galli; Glebionis coronaria; Prunus cerasus; Pyrus communis; Rubus persicus; Smilax excelsa.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Childers, French & Rodrigues (2003a), Raissi Ardali, Hadizadeh, Mohammadi Sharif & Khanjani (2014a), Ueckermann, Palevsky, Gerson ao (2018a).

Brevipalpus californicus

Brevipalpus californicus (Banks, 1904)

polyphagous, mainly on Citrus

Brevipalpus californicus

mite, dorsal view (from Ueckermann ao)

parasite

The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, can cause chlorosis, blistering, or necrotic areas.

host plants

Alnus subcordata; Citrus; Glebionis coronaria; Rubus persicus; Salix alba.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Childers, French & Rodrigues (2003a), Raissi Ardali, Hadizadeh, Mohammadi Sharif & Khanjani (2014a), Ueckermann, Palevsky, Gerson ao (2018a).

Pentamerismus oregonensis

Pentamerismus oregonensis McGregor, 1949

on Cupressaceae, etc.

parasite

The mites are vagrants on the needles, without causing apparent damage.

host plants

Cupressaceae, oligophagous

Calocedrus decurrens; Juniperus communis, horizontalis, scopulorum; Platycladus orientalis.

But also Glebionis coronaria (Asteraceae)

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Raissi Ardali, Hadizadeh, Mohammadi Sharif & Khanjani (2014a), Ueckermann & Ripka (2015a).

Cenopalpus adventicus

Cenopalpus adventicus Ueckermann & Ripka, 2015

on Rosmarinus

Cenopalpus adventicus

mite, dorsal view (from Ueckermann & Ripka)

parasite

The carmin mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves and stems, without causing apparent damage.

host plants

Lamiaceae, monophagous

Rosmarinus officinalis.

distribution within Europe

Hungary.

references

Ueckermann & Ripka (2015a).

Cenopalpus cumanicus

Cenopalpus cumanicus Ueckermann & Ripka, 2015

on Populus

Cenopalpus cumanicus

mite, dorsal view (from Ueckermann & Ripka)

parasite

The ault mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, among the hair cover of the midrib; larvae mainly on the petioles and young shoots.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Populus alba, canescens.

distribution within Europe

Hungary.

references

Ueckermann & Ripka (2015a).

Acritonotus nascimentoi

Acritonotus nascimentoi Carmona, 1972

on Ruscus

Acritonotus nascimentoi

mite, lateral view (from Carmona)

parasite

The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. The exuviae of the mites were so numerous that it created the impression of a mildew infection.

host plants

Asparagaceae, monophagous

Ruscus hypoglossum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

references

Carmona (1972a).

Aculodes sylvatici

Aculodes sylvatici Skoracka, Labrzycka & Rector 2009

on Brachypodium

Aculodes sylvatici

mite, dorsal view (from Skoracka ao)

parasite

The mites are vagrants at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage.

host plants

Poaceae, monophagous

Brachypodium sylvaticum.

distribution within Europe

Croati.

references

Skoracka, Labrzycka & Rector (2009a).

Aculodes festucae

Aculodes festucae Skoracka, Labrzycka & Rector 2009

on Schedonorus

Aculodes festucae

mite, dorsal view (from Skoracka ao)

parasite

The mites are vagrants at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage.

host plants

Poaceae, monophagous

Schedonorus arundinaceus.

distribution within Europe

Croatia.

references

Skoracka, Labrzycka & Rector (2009a).

Acaralox croatiae

Acaralox croatiae Skoracka, Labrzycka & Rector, 2009

on Calamagrostis, Molinia

Acaralox croatae

mite, dorsal view (from Skoracka ao)

parasite

The mites are vagrants on the upper side of the leaves, without causing apparent damage.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Calamagrostis epigeios; Molinia caerulea.

distribution within Europe

Croatia.

references

Ripka (2015b), Skoracka, Labrzycka & Rector (2009a).

Shevtchenkella erigerivagrans

Shevtchenkella erigerivagrans (Davis, 1964)

on ? Artemisia, ? Taracacum

parasite

The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Artemisia absinthium; Taraxacum officinale.

Rather improbable combination.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2019).

synonyms

Tegonotus erigerivagrans.

references

Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a).