Category Archives: [:en]parasite[:nl]parasiet[:]

Ametastegia glabrata

Ametastegia glabrata (Fallén, 1808)

dock sawfly

on herbs

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

mainly Polygonaceae

Bidens; Chenopodium; Epilobium; Fagopyrum; Lythrum salicaria; Plantago; Polygonum aviculare; Rheum rhabarbarum; Ribes; Rumex acetosella, crispus, longifolius; Salix; Solanum dulcamara, tuberosum; Vicia; Viola.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2012a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Dolerus vestigialis

Dolerus vestigialis (Klug, 1818)

on Equisetum

parasite

Larvae free on the branches.

host plants

Equisetaceae, monophagous

Equisetum arvense, palustre, pratensis, sylvaticum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Loderus vestigialis.

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Haris (2012a, 2018a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Gilpinia hercyniae

Gilpinia hercyniae (Hartig,1837)

european spruce sawfly

on Picea

parasite

Larvae free on the needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Picea abies, obovata, pungens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Haris (2012a), Kula, Holuša, Roller & Úradník (2016a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a).

Pachyprotasis rapae

Pachyprotasis rapae (Linnaeus, 1767)

on dicotyledons

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

polyphagous

Angelica sylvestris; Antirrhinum; Atropa; Carduus personata; Corylus avellana; Cytisus scoparius; Digitalis grandiflora; Epilobium; Fraxinus excelsior; Galeopsis; Hypericum; Mentha; Origanum; Pedicularis palustris; Plantago; Polygonum; Polystichum; Quercus; Salix caprea; Salvia officinalis; Scrophularia nodosa; Senecio ovatus; Solanum tuberosum; Solidago; Stachys; Symphoricarpos albus; Tussilago farfara; Verbascum; Veronica beccabunga.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Haris (2018a), Hoop (1983a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a, 20006a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Tenthredopsis nassata

Tenthredopsis nassata (Linnaeus, 1767)

on “grasses” (and herbs?)

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Cyperaceae, Poaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Agropyron; Avenella flexuosa; Brachypodium sylvaticum; Carex; Dactylis glomerata; Deschampsia cespitosa; Holcus; Lolium perenne.

Haris moreover mentions Anthriscus sylvestris; Artemisia.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Haris (2018a), Hoop (1983a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Tenthredo vespa

Tenthredo vespa Retzius, 1783

on Hippophae, etc.

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

polyphagous

Acer platanoides; Fraxinus excelsior; Hippophae rhamnoides; Jasminum; Ligustrum; Lonicera; Spiraea media; Symphoricarpos; Syringa; Viburnum.

At least locally a strong preference for buckthorn (Vikberg & Itämies).

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

See Vikberg & Itlimies.

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Hoop (1983a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Vikberg & Itämies (1999a).

Tenthredo atra

Tenthredo atra Linnaeus, 1758

on herbs

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

polyphagous

Brassica; Cornus; Lamium; Melissa officinalis; Mentha; Menyanthes trifoliata; Plantago; Ranunculus; Salix; Scabiosa; Sedum; Solanum; Symphyotrichum novi-belgii; Urtica; Vicia.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Tenthredella atra.

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Haris (2018a) , Hoop (1983a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a, 2006a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Gilpinia socia

Gilpinia socia (Klug, 1812)

on Pinus

parasite

Larvae communally free on the needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Pinus mugo, sylvestris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

Pictures in Kupková ao.

references

Kupková, Holecová & Kulfan (2014a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Vas & Zombori (2015a).

Craesus latipes

Craesus latipes (Villaret, 1832)

on Alnus, Betula

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves. Eggs are deposited in rows in te underside of the midrib and strong side veins.

host plants

Betulaceae, oligophagous

Alnus viridis; Betula pendula, pubescens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Croesus latipes.

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Burton, Weiss & Schneider (2019a), Buhr (1964a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Tomasi (2014a), Urban (2012d).

Cimbex connatus

Cimbex connatus (von Paula Schrank, 1776)

large alder sawfly

on Alnus

parasite

Up to 4 cm long larvae free at the undersides of the leaves.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Alnus glutinosa, incana.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

See Chevin.

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Chevin (1984a), Edmunds & Springate (1998a), Nikolić, Brajković, Ćurčić & Milivojević (2007a), Patrovsky & Schweitzer (2017a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Aglaostigma fulvipes

Aglaostigma fulvipes (Scopoli, 1763)

on Galium

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Rubiaceae, monophagous

Galium aparine, mollugo, verum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Çalmaşur (2006a), Haris (2018a). Hoop (1983a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2006a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Pachynematus clitellatus

Pachynematus clitellatus (Audinet-Serville, 1823)

on grasses etc.

parasite

Larvae free on the culms.

host plants

Poaceae (Cyperaceae, Juncaceae), narrowly polyphagous

Agrostis gigantea, stolonifera; Alopecurus pratensis; Bromopsis inermis; Carex; Dactylis glomerata; Festuca rubra; Hordeum; Juncus; Lolium perenne; Phalaroides arundinacea; Poa pratensis; Schedonorus arundinaceus; Triticum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Schedl (2003a).

Nematus pavidus

Nematus pavidus Audinet-Serville, 1823

lesser willow sawfly

on Populus, Salix

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Salicaceae, oligophagous

Populus nigra, tremula; Salix alba, aurita, caprea, x fragilis, x smithiana, viminalis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a)m Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Schedl (2003a).

Nematinus luteus

Nematinus luteus (Panzer, 1804)

on Alnus, Corylus

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Betulaceae, oligophagous

Alnus glutinosa, incana, ? viridis; Corylus avellana.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Nematinus willigkiae Stein, 1926.

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Chevin (1984a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Schedl (2003a).

Nematinus fuscipennis

Nematinus fuscipennis (Audinet-Serville, 1823)

on Alnus, Carpinus

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Betulaceae, oligophagous

Alnus glutinosa, incana; ? Carpinus betulus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Nematinus abdominalis (Panzer).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Chevin (1984a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Schedl (2003a).

Mesoneura opaca

Mesoneura opaca (Fabricius, 1775)

on Quercus

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves. Oviposition in the midrib.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus pubescens, robur.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Haris (2018a), Liston, Jacobs & Prous (2015a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a, 2006a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Schedl (2003a).

Platycampus luridiventris

Platycampus luridiventris (Fallén, 1808)

on Alnus, Betula, Corylus

Platycampus luridiventris: larva on Alnus glutinosa

Alnus glutinosa, Bremerbergbos, 20.ix.2016 © Hans Jonkman, det Leo Blommers

parasite

Larvae free at the undersides of the leaves.

host plants

Betulaceae, oligophagous

Alnus glutinosa, incana, viridis; Betula pendula; Corylus avellana.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Chevin (1984a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Schedl (2003a).

Nematus lipovskyi

Nematus lipovskyi Smith, 1974

azalea sawfly

on Rhododendron

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Ericaceae, monophagous

Rhododendron luteum, molle.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as fully grown larva.

distribution within Europe

North American species, found in the Czech Republic in 2010.

larva

See Macek & Šípek.

references

Macek & Šípek (2015a).

Hoplocampa minuta

Hoplocampa minuta (Christ. 1791)

black plum sawfly

on Prunus

parasite

Larvae bore in the unripe fruits.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Prunus armeniaca, avium, domestica, salicina.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Liston, Prous & Vårdal (2019a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Roques, Cleary, Matsiakh & Eschem (2017a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Hoplocampa flava

Hoplocampa flava (Linnaeus, 1760)

plum sawfly

on Prunus

parasite

Larvae bore in the unripe fruits.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Prunus armeniaca, avium, domestica, salicina, spinosa.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Heibo, Lønnve, Barstad ao (2014a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Liston, Prous & Vårdal (2019a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a).

Hoplocampa crataegi

Hoplocampa crataegi (Klug, 1816)

on Crataegus

parasite

Larvae bore in the berries.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Crataegus laevigata. monogyna.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2018a), Heibo, Lønnve, Barstad ao (2014a), Liston, Prous & Vårdal (2019a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Schedl (2003a).

Hoplocampa brevis

Hoplocampa brevis (Klug, 1816)

pear fruit sawfly

on Pyrus

parasite

Larvae bore in the fruits.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Pyrus communis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

See Liston, Prous & Vårdal.

notes

Parthenogenetic species.

references

Liston, Jacobs & Prous (2015a), Liston, Prous & Vårdal (2019a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a).

Aglaostigma aucupariae

Aglaostigma aucupariae (Klug, 1817)

on Galium

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Rubiaceae, monophagous

Galium boreale, mollugo.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2018a), Hoop (1983a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2006a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Monophadnus spinolae

Monophadnus spinolae (Klug, 1816)

on Clematis

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Ranunculaceae, monophagous

Clematis flammula, vitalba.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Mihajlović, Spasić, Petanović & Mihajlović (1998a), Perović, Merdić & Perović (2006a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a, 2006a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Claremontia puncticeps

Claremontia puncticeps (Konow, 1886)

on Sanguisorba, etc.

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Rosaceae, oligophagous

Fragaria; Potentilla reptans; Sanguisorba minor, officicinalis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Blennocampa, Monophadnoides, puncticeps.

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2018a), Tiberghien (2007a), Tomasi (2014a).

Athalia rosae

Athalia rosae (Linnaeus, 1758)

turnip sawfly

on Brassicaceae

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Brassicaceae, Tropaeolaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Alliaria petiolata; Armoracia rusticana; Barbarea; Brassica juncea, napus, oleracea, rapa; Cardamine; Raphanus raphanistrum, sativus; Rorippa; Sinapis arvensis; Sisymbrium officinale; Tropaeolum majus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2012a, 2018a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2006a), Tiberghien (2007a).

Macrophya albicincta

Macrophya albicincta (von Paula Schrank, 1776)

valerian sawfly

on Sambucus, Valeriana, Viburnum

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Adoxaceae, Caprifoliaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Sambucus ebulus, nigra, racemosa; Valeriana officinalis; Viburnum opulus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Macrophya albocincta.

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2018a), Hoop (1983a), Liston (1983a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Savina & Liston (2009a).

Abia sericea

Abia sericea (Linnaeus, 1767)

orange-horned scabious sawfly

on Caprifoliaceae

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Caprifoliaceae, oligophagous

Dipsacus fullonum, laciniatus, sativus; Knautia arvensis, godetii, maxima; Scabiosa ochroleuca; Succisa pratensis.

References to Fragaria have been shown to be incorrect.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Harizanova, Stoeva & Rector (2012a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Savina & Liston (2009a).

Pamphilius varius

Pamphilius varius (Adinet-Serville, 1823)

alder web-spinning sawfly

on Alnus, Betula

Pamphilius varius: leaf roll

leaf roll (after Viitasaari, from van Achterberg & van Aartsen)

parasite

Larvae in a leaf rolled in a cone.

host plants

Betulaceae, oligophagous

Alnus glutinosa, incana, viridis subsp. fruticosa; Betula penddula, pubescens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Pamphilius vafer auct.

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a), Chevin (1984a), Haris (2012a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a, 2006a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Shinohara (2003a).

Pamphilius marginatus

Pamphilius marginatus (Audinet-Serville, 1823)

on Carpinus, Corylus

parasite

Larvae in a rolled leaf.

host plants

Betulaceae, oligophagous

Carpinus betulus; .Corylus avellana

Probably as well Ostrya carpinifolia.

distribution within Europe

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a), Haris (2018a), Heibo, Lønnve, Barstad ao (2014a) , Savina & Chevin (2012a), Shinohara & Blank (2003a).

Heterodera carotae

Heterodera carotae Jones, 1950

carrot cyst nematode

on Daucus, Torilis

parasite

Irregular and slow growth of the tap root, proliferation of the secondary roots, presence of cysts. The plants are stunted, the foliage often turns reddish and withers prematurely.

host plants

Apiaceae, oligophagous

Daucus carota; Torilis arvensis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Berney & Bird (1992a), Madani, Palomares-Rius, Vovlas, ao (2017a), Roskam (2019a).

Pamphilius maculosus

Pamphilius maculosus (Zaddach, 1866)

southern aspen leaf-rolling sawfly

on Populus

parasite

Larvae in a rolled leaf margin.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Populus tremula.

Contrariwise, Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer mention Salix caprea as the host plant.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a), Chevin (1987), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2006a).

Pamphilius hortorum

Pamphilius hortorum (Klug, 1808)

raspberry leaf-rolling sawfly

on Rubus

Pamphilius hortorum: leaf roll

rolled leaf (after Lorenz & Kraus, from van Achterberg & van Aartsen)

parasite

Larvae in a folded leaf margin.

host plants

Rosaceae, narrowly monophagous

Rubus idaeus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a), Haris (2012a, 2018a), Kula, Holuša, Roller & Úradník (2016a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Pamphilius gyllenhali

Pamphilius gyllenhali (Dahlbom, 1835)

willow leaf-rolling sawfly

on Salix

Pamphilius gyllenhali: leaf roll

leaf roll (after Viitasaari, from van Achterberg & van Aartsen)

parasite

Larvae in a rolled leaf margin.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Salix aurita, caprea.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Onycholyda sertata

Onycholyda sertata (Konow, 1903)

on Filipendula

Onycholyda sertata: folded leaf

young and old leaf fold (after Viitasaari, from van Achterberg & van Aartsen)

parasite

Larvae in a leaf fold.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Filipendula ulmaria.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

Onycholyda sertata: larva

larva (after Viitasaari, from van Achterberg & van Aartsen)

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a).

Acantholyda pumilionis

Acantholyda pumilionis (Giraud, 1861)

on Pinus

parasite

Solitary larva in an up to 10 cm long silken tube along a branch. The tube is covered with frass grains and fragments of needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Pinus cembra, mugo.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

See Schedl (1973a)

references

van Achterberg & van Aarten (1986a), Benson (1961a, Schedl (1973a).

Erwinia herbicola

Erwinia herbicola (Lohnis) Dye

bacterial pocket

on Beta, Gypsophila

parasite

Tumors of the roots, deeply divided in many small units; each one with necrotic centre.

host plants

Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, polyphagous

Beta vulgaris; Gypsophila paniculata.

synonyms

Xanthomonas beticola (Smith, Brown & Townsend) Săvulescu.

references

Buhr (1964a), Burr, Katz, Abawi & Crosier (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Roskam (2019a).

Acantholyda hieroglyphica

Acantholyda hieroglyphica (Christ, 1791)

web-spinning pine-sawfly

on Pinus

parasite

Larvae solitary or in small group in a silken tube among the needled; the spinnings are filled with masses of frass. Pupation, without a cocoon, in the soil. Oviposition as one egg per needle. Preference for 3-4 years old trees.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Pinus cembra, contorta, mugo.

phenology

Mostly univoltine, sometimes bivoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

van Achterberg & van Aarten (1986a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Cephalcia erythrogaster

Cephalcia erythrogaster (Hartig 1837)

on Picea

parasite

Larvae solitary in copiously frass-incrustrated silken tubes among the needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Picea abies, koraiensis, obovata, pungens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

van Achterberg & van Aarten (1986a), Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Jachym (2007a), Kula, Holuša, Roller & Úradník (2016a).

Cephalcia alpina

Cephalcia alpina (Klug, 1808)

on Picea

parasite

Larvae in a copiously frass-incrustrated silken tube among the needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Picea abies, jezoensis, koraiensis, obovata, pungens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Cephalcia fallenii (Dalman, 1823).

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a), Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Jachym (2007a), Kula, Holuša, Roller & Úradník (2016a).

Cephalcia arvensis

Cephalcia arvensis Panzer, 1805

on Picea

parasite

Larvae solitary in copiously frass-incrustrated silken tubes among the needles. Eggs deposited singly in a needle.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Picea abies, jezoensis, koraiensis, obovata, pungens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

van Achterberg & van Aarten (1986a), Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Jachym (2007a), Kula, Holuša, Roller & Úradník (2016a).

Cephalcia lariciphila

Cephalcia lariciphila (Wachtl, 1898)

web-spinning larch sawfly

on Larix

parasite

Larvae solitary in strongly frass-incrustrated silken tubes among the needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Larix decidua, kaempferi.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Cephalcia abietis

Cephalcia abietis (Linnaeus, 1758)

spruce webworm

on Picea

parasite

Larvae, often in large number together, in strongly frass-incrustrated silken tubes among the needles. Oviposition in rows of 4-12 on a needle.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Picea abies, obovata, koraiensis, pungens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a), Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Jachym (2007a), Kula, Holuša, Roller & Úradník (2016a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a).

Neurotoma nemoralis

Neurotoma nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758)

european cherry webspinning sawfly

on Prunus

parasite

Larvae in a common web at the leaves.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Prunus armeniaca, cerasus, mahaleb, spinosa.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2012a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a.

Acantholyda posticalis

Acantholyda posticalis (Matsumura, 1912)

great pine web-spinning sawfly

on Pinus

Acantholyda posticalis egg

egg on a needle (after Viitasaari, from van Achterberg & van Aartsen).

parasite

Larvae in frass-incrustrated silken tubes among the needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monofaag

Pinus densiflora, nigra, strobus, sylvestris, thunbergii.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a).

Acantholyda flaviceps

Acantholyda flaviceps (Retzius, 1783)

on Pinus

Acantholyda flaviceps eggs

eggs on a needle (after Viitasaari, from van Achterberg & van Aartsen)

parasite

Larvae in frass-incrustrated silken tubes among the needles. Oviposition in a row on the needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Pinus contorta.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

van Achterberg & van Aartsen (1986a), Benson (1961a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a).

Monostegia nigra

Monostegia nigra (Konow, 1896)

on Lysimachia

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves

host plants

Primulaceae, monophagous

Lysimachia nummularia, punctata, vulgaris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

Monostegia larvae

Comparision of the larvae of Monostegia nigra (left) and M. abdominalis (right) © Tineke Cramer (from Mol, 2015a).

references

Mol (2015a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a, 2006a).

Monostegia abdominalis

Monostegia abdominalis (Fabricius, 1798)

on Primulaceae

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

oligophagous

Anagallis arvensis; Glaux maritima; Lysimachia nummularia, vulgaris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

Picture in Mol (2015a).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2018a), Mol (2015a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Riddiford & Liston (2016a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Cladius brullei

Cladius brullei (Dahlbom, 1835)

blackberry sawfly

on Rosaceae

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

oligophagous

Prunus avium; Rubus arcticus, idaeus, fruticosus, saxatilis; Sorbus aucuparia.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Priophorus brullei.

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Haris (2018a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2006a), Riddiford & Liston (2016a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Schedl (2003a), Tiberghien (2007a).

Athalia circularis

Athalia circularis (Klug, 1815)

polyphagous on herbs

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Ajuga reptans; Alliaria petiolata; Arctium lappa; Capsella; Glechoma hederacea; Lycopus; Melampyrum; Veronica beccabunga, longifolia, officinalis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2012a, 2015a), Haris (2018a) , Liston, Jacobs & Prous (2015a), Riddiford & Liston (2016a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Tiberghien (2007a).

Athalia cordata

Athalia cordata Audinet-Serville, 1823

on Lamiaceae, Plantaginaceae

parasite

Larvae free on the leaves.

host plants

Lamiaceae, Plantaginaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Ajuga reptans; Antirrhinum majus; Misopates orontium; Plantago; Teucrium scorodonia.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2012a, 2018a), Riddiford & Liston (2016a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Cephus spinipes

Cephus spinipes (Panzer, 1800)

on grasses

parasite

The larvae bore in the culms; there also the pupation.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Dactylis glomerata; Phleum pratense.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Cephus cultratus auct.

references

Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2012a), Liston (1959a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2006a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Schwarz (1999a).

Calameuta filiformis

Calameuta filiformis (Eversmann, 1847)

on grasses

parasite

The larvae bore in the stems; here also the pupation takes place.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Arrhenatherum elatius; Calamagrostis epigeios; Elytrigia repens; Phalaroides arundinacea; Phragmites australis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Gyurkovics & Haris (2012a), Haris (2012a, 2018a), Perović, Merdić & Perović (2006a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a, 2006a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Schwarz (1999a), Tiberghien (2007a).

Eudemis profundana

Eudemis profundana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

diamond-back marble

on Quercus (etc.?)

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus robur.

References to other trees (in particular Rosaceae) perhaps apply to Eudemis porphyrana.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni. The description of the larva by Swatschek was based on material originating from Malus domestica!

synonyms

Olethreutes profundana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman & Koster (1999a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Celypha rufana

Celypha rufana (Scopoli, 1763)

lakes marble

on Asteraceae

parasite

The young larvae feed at the roots; later the feed on dead leaves of a variety of plants.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Achillea; Artemisia vulgaris; Sonchus arvensis; Tanacetum vulgare; Taraxacum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Heckford & Beavan, atočka & Turčáni, Swatschek.

synonyms

Olethreutes rufana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Heckford & Beavan (2013a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Thrips flavus

Thrips flavus von Paula Schrank, 1776

honeysuckle thrips, yellow flower thrips

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae and adult thrips live in the buds and flowers, sucking cells.

host plants

Malus domestica; Serratula tinctoria; Helianthus annuus; Ulex.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

CABI Plantwise Knowledge Bank (2020), Mound, Morison, Pitkin & Palmer (1976a), Raspudić, Ivezić, Brmež & Trdan (2009a), Roskam (2019a).

Agrilus viscivorus

Agrilus viscivorus Bilý, 1991

on Viscum

parasite

The larvae bore in the branches. In preparation of its pupation the fully grown larva makes a circular gallery in the gallery, causing the branch to die.

host plants

Santalaceae, monophagous

Viscum album & subsp. austriacum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Hellrigl (2006b), Liberto & Gigli (2003a), Monnerat (2005a).

Rhizococcus munroi

Rhizococcus munroi (Boryatynski, 1962)

Munro’s felt scale

polyphagous on low plants.

parasite

Scales mainly near the root collar.

host plants

Achillea distans, millefolium; Artemisia; Brachypodium pinnatum; Calluna; Chrysanthemum; Crepis; Deschampsia; Erigeron canadensis; Euphorbia; Minuartia anatolica, setacea; Potentilla megalantha; Sarcopoterium spinosum; Saussurea japonica; Schedonorus pratensis; Sedum; Tetragonolobus; Teucrium; Thymus odoratissimus; Valeriana officinalis; Veronica; Vicia.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Acanthoococcus, Eriococcus, munroi.

references

Hellrigl (2004a), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a).

Liparthrum bartschti

Liparthrum bartschti Muhl, 1891

on Viscum

parasite

The female bores a wide gallery under the bak of a thick branch, perpendicular to its length and deposits a number of eggs. The emerging larvae make individual galleries, each one ending upon a pupal chamber, relatively deep in the wood.

host plants

Santalaceae, monophagous

Viscum album.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Hellrigl (2006b), Varga, Keresztes & Poczai (2012a).

Apotomis turbidana

Apotomis turbidana Hübner, 1825

white-shouldered marble

on Betula

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Betulaceae, > monophagous

Betula pendula.

References to Populus; Quercus; Salix need further confirmation.

phenology

Inivoltine,

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Olethreutes corticana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Dantart (2010b), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a).

Apotomis sororculana

Apotomis sororculana (Zetterstedt, 1839)

narrow-winged marble

on Betula

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula pendula.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni, Swatschek.

synonyms

Olethreutes sororculana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman & Koster (1996a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Apotomis capreana

Apotomis capreana (Hübner, 1817)

sallow marble, sallow apotomis moth

on Salix

parasite

Initially the larvae feed on the buds; later the live in a leave folded with spinning.

host plants

Salicaceae, (narrowly?) monophagous

Salix caprea.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni, Swatschek.

synonyms

Olethreutes capreana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Dantart (2010b), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Celypha cespitana

Celypha cespitana (Hübner, 1817)

thyme marble

on kruiden

parasite

Larvae in silken tubes over the lower parts of the plant.

host plants

polyphagous

Armeria maritima; Calluna vulgaris; Cytisus scoparius; Limonium; Spartium; Thymus; Trifolium.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

See Swatschek.

synonyms

Olethreutes cespitana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b) , Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Homoeosoma nimbella

Homoeosoma nimbella (Duponchel, 1836).

scarce clouded knot-horn

on Asteraceae, XXXXXXX

parasite

Larvae in the fruiting flower heads.

host plants

Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Carduus nutans; Carlina; Galatella; Helichrysum italicum; Hieracium umbellatum; Jasione montana; Solidago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Homoeosoma nimbellum.

references

Klimesch (1942a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Wegner (2010a).

Rhizococcus coccineus

Rhizococcus coccineus (Cockerell, 1894)

cactus eriococcin, cactus mealybug

on Cactaceae

Rhizococcus coccineus: larvae

leg M Shutta © United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs: larvae and ovisic

Rhizococcus coccineus: ovisac

leg K Brown © United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photograph: the ovisac often is formed on a spine

parasite

Adult females, oval, 3 mm, purplish.

host plants

Cactaceae, oligophagous

Opuntia ficus-indica.

In greenhouses and botanical gardens on a wide range of other genera, including Astrophytum, Cereus, Cleistocactus, Echinocactus, Echinocereus, Echinopsis, Hylocereus, Mammillaria, Neobuxbaumia, Pelecyphora, Rebutia, Rhipsalis, Selenicereus, Thelocactus, Wilcoxia.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Acanthococus, Eriococcus coccineus.

references

Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a).

Asynapta thuraui

Asynapta thuraui Rübsaamen, 1893

on Calamagrostis

parasite

Larvae have been found inside the unmodified leaf sheats. Because generally Asynapta species are detritivores, probably also here there exists no parasitic relationship.

host plants

Poaceae, monophagous

Calamagrostis epigeios.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

Red, without a spatula. See Möhn, Rübsaamen.

references

Gagné (2010a), Gagné & Jaschhof (2015a), Möhn (1955a), Roskam (2019a_, Rübsaamen (1893a), Skuhravá (2006a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1999a).

Diurnea lipsiella

Diurnea lipsiella (Denis & Schiffermüler, 1775)

november tubic

on deciduous trees

parasite

Larvae between spun leaves.

host plants

restricted polyphagous

Acer; Alnus; Berberis; Betula pendula, pubescens; Carpinus betulus; Crataegus; Fagus sylvatica; Quercus pubescens, robur; Rosa canina; Rubus fruticosus; Salix caprea; Vaccinium myrtillus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Benander, Fetz, Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Chimabache phryganella (Hübner, 1796).

references

Benander (1937a), Emmet & Langmaid (2002b), Fetz (1994a), Hellers (1998a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a).

Diurnea fagella

Diurnea fagella (Denis & Schiffermüler, 1775)

march tubic

on deciduous trees

parasite

Larvae in spun leaves.

host plants

restricted polyphagous

Acer pseudoplatanus; Alnus; Alnus; Carpinus betulus; Corylus avellana; Fagus sylvatica; Malus domestica; Myrica gale; Populus tremula; Prunus armeniaca, serotina, spinosa; Quercus pubescens, robur; Salix caprea, cinerea, viminalis; Ulmus minor.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Benander, Fetz, Graham, Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Chimabache fagella.

references

Benander (1937a), Emmet & Langmaid (2002b), Fetz (1994a), Graham (2014a), Huemer (2012a), Kasy (1987a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a).

Carcina quercana

Carcina quercana (Fabricius, 1775)

long-horned flat-body

on deciduous trees

parasite

Larva under a web on a leaf.

host plants

restricted polyphagous

Acer campestre, pseudoplatanus; Arbutus unedo; Castanea sativa; Cornus mas; Fagus sylvatica; Hypericum; Malus domestica, sylvestris; Prunus persica, spinosa; Quercus canariensis, coccifera, dalechampii, frainetto, ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis, pubescens, robur & subsp. pedunculiflora, suber, trojana; Rosa; Sorbus torminalis; Viburnum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Fetz, Patočka, Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Emmet & Langmaid 2002b), Ezzine, Ben Yahia, Dhahri, ao (2018a), Fetz (1994a), Huemer (2012a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a).

Ovaticoccus exoticus

Ovaticoccus exoticus Pellizzari & Kozár 2011

on Agave

parasite

Scales on the leaves. Adult female oval, 3 mm, pink.

host plants

Asparagaceae, monophagous

Agave americana.

distribution within Europe

Italy.

references

Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Pellizzari & Kozár (2011a) .

Orontesicoccus lauri

Orontesicoccus lauri (Erkılıç, 2011)

on Laurus

parasite

Scales on large numbers on both sides of the leaves. Adult female dark red; in the white felt-like ovisac. The felt sac was full with eggs with same colour with female.

host plants

Lauraceae, monophagous

Laurus nobilis.

distribution within Europe

Turkey.

references

Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a).

Pseudosciaphila branderiana

Pseudosciaphila branderiana (Linnaeus, 1758)

great marble

on Populus

parasite

Larvae in a folded leaf margin.

host plants

Salicaceae, narrowly monophagous

Populus tremula.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

See Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Olethreutes branderiana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wieser & Huemer (1997a), Ylla Ullastre & Macià Vila (2005a).

Acanthococcus formicicola

Acanthococcus formicicola (Newstead, 1897)

bermuda-grass felt scale

on grasses

parasite

Scales on the leaves.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Cynodon dactylon; Elymus; Festuca; Hyparrhenia hirta; Setaria.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Anophococcus, Eriococcus, formicicola.

references

Gomez-Menor Ortega (1957a, 1960a), Hellrigl (2004a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Mifsud, Mazzeo, Russo & Watson (2014a), Seljak (2010a).

Acanthococcus ericae

Acanthococcus ericae (Signoret, 1875)

on Calluna, Erica

host plants

Ericaceae, oligophagous

Calluna vulgaris; Erica arborea, australis, carnea, multiflora, tetralix.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Eriococcus ericae.

references

Ben-Dov Y & Sánchez-García (2015a), Gomez-Menor Ortega (1957a, 1960a, 1965a), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Mifsud, Mazzeo, Russo & Watson (2014a).

Cimbex femoratus

Cimbex femoratus (Linnaeus, 1758)

birch sawfly, buton horn sheet wasp

on Betula

Cimbex femoratus on Betula spec.

Betula spec., Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Rekem, Vallei van de Zijpbeek, 16.ix.2017 © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Cimbex femoratus on Betula spec.

detail

Cimbex femoratus on Betula spec.

the striking dorsal line

parasite

Larvae free on the plant.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula pendula.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Cimbex femorata.

references

Benson (1951a), Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Pesarini & Turrisi (2006a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Savina & Chevin (2012a).

Phiaris bipunctana

Phiaris bipunctana (Fabricius, 1794)

on Vaccinium, etc.

parasite

Larvae in spun leaves.

host plants

Ericaceae, oligophagous

Orthilia secunda; Vaccinium myrtillus, vitis-idaea.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni, Swatschek.

synonyms

Endothenia, Olethreutes, bipunctana.

references

Disqué (1905a), Klimesch (1989a), Landry, Nazari, Dewaard ao (2013a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Coniocleonus hollbergii

Coniocleonus hollbergii (Fåhraeus, 1842)

on Rumex

parasite

Larvae extophagously at the roots

host plants

Polygonaceae, monophagous

Rumex acetosella.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Stephanocleonus hollbergii; Coniocleonus glaucus (Fabricius, 1787).

references

Balalaikins & Bukejs (2011a), Behne (1987a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1983a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Stejskal & Trnka (2013a).

Acanthococcus pseudinsignis

Acanthococcus pseudinsignis (Green, 1921)

boreal felt scale

on “grasses”

parasite

Scales and ovisacs mainly on top of the very base of the leaf lamina.

host plants

Poaceae, etc., oligophagous

Agropyron cristatum subsp. ponticum; Agrostis capillaris; Alopecurus pratensis; Ammophila; Andropogon; Anthoxanthum; Arrhenatherum elatius; Avenella flexuosa; Brachypodium pinnatum, sylvaticum; Bromopsis inermis; Calamagrostis; Carex; Cynodon dactylon; Elytrigia repens; Festuca; Holcus lanatus, mollis; Koeleria glauca; Luzula; Molinia caerulea; Phragmites; Setaria.

Ovisacs often are deposited on non-host plants. Thee may explain the references of Achillea millefolium; Dianthus crinitus; Taraxacum; Veronica chamaedrys.

phenology

U nivoltine; hibernation as egg.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Anophococcus, Eriococcus, pseudinsignis.

references

Hellrigl (2004a), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Seljak (2010a).

Luzulaspis grandis

Luzulaspis grandis Borchsenius, 1939

on Carex

parasite

Mature female narrow-oval, up to 8 mm; on the leaves.

host plants

Cyperaceae, monophagous

Carex ornithopoda.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Luzulaspis pieninica Koteja & Żak-Ogaza, 1966.

references

Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Greenisca glyceriae

Greenisca glyceriae (Green, 1921)

on “grasses”

parasite

Scales in the leaf sheaths.

host plants

(Cyperaceae), Poaceae, oligophagous

Agrostis canina, capillaris, gigantea, stolonifera; Anthoxanthum odoratum; Arrhenatherum elatius; Brachypodium; Calamagrostis; Carex; Corynephorus canescens; Dactylis glomerata; Elytrigia repens; Festuca ovina & subsp. supina, rubra, stricta subsp. sulcata; Hierochloe odorata; Koeleria; Leymus arenarius; Lolium perenne; Phleum pratense; Poa angustifolia, compressa, pratensis; Puccinellia maritima; Secale cereale; Triticum aestivum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Eriococcus, Kaweckia, glyceriae.

references

Fetykó (2014a), Hellrigl (2004a), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Peliococcus calluneti

Peliococcus calluneti (Lindinger, 1912)

on Calluna, Vaccinium

parasite

Scales at the roots, or underground or moss-covered parts of the stems.

host plants

Ericaceae, oligophagous

Calluna vulgaris; Vaccinium myrtillus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Spinococcus calluneti.

references

Gertsson (2011a), Jansen (1999b), Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Malumphy, Ostrauskas & Pye (2010a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a).

Septocyta ruborum

Septocyta ruborum (Libert) Petrak, 1968

purple blotch of blackberry

on Rubus

Septocyta ruborum on Rubus fruticosus

Rubus fruticosus, België, prov. Antwerpen, Mol, Molse Nete, 3.iii.2020 © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Septocyta ruborum on Rubus fruticosus

infected part of a stem

Septocyta ruborum on Rubus fruticosus

conidiodomata

Septocyta ruborum on Rubus fruticosus

opened conidiodomata

Septocyta ruborum on Rubus fruticosus

conidia

Septocyta ruborum on Rubus fruticosus

conidia

parasite

On purplish discoloured parts of the stem develop 0,3 mm large black sunken conidiodomata that open in early spring; conidia 1.5-2 x (17)20-30(32) µm, 0-3-septate.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Rubus fruticosus, laciniatus, nessensis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Brandenburger (1985a: 242), Ellis & Ellis (1997a), Kövics (1997a).

Acanthococcus insignis

Acanthococcus insignis (Newstead, 1891)

on grass-like plants

parasite

Scales on the leaves.

host plants

polyphagous

Agropyron cristatum; Agrostis capillaris, curtisii, rupestris; Andropogon; Anthoxanthum odoratum; Arrhenatherum elatius; Avenella flexuosa; Avenula pubescens; Brachypodium; Bromopsis inermis; Bromus hordeaceus; Calamagrostis arundinacea; Carex; Cynodon dactylon; Dactylis glomerata; Elytrigia repens; Festuca ovina, rubra; Holcus lanatus; Koeleria askoldensis; Luzula campestris; Nardus; Phalaris; Phleum phleoides, pratense; Poa; Schedonorus pratensis; Stipa.

Although Kozár ao state that the species lives on “grasses”, they include in tuer list of host plant a large number of dicotyledonous plants. Their role is not clear, and they are not included in the list above.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Acanthochermes, Anophococcus, Eriococcus, Rhizococcus, insignis.

references

Hellrigl (2004a), Jansen (1999b), Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Acanthococcus inermis

Acanthococcus inermis (Green, 1915)

on grasses

Acanthococcus inermis: ovisac

ovisac, cut open (from Malumphy ea).

parasite

Adult female oblong-oval, 3 mm, at the leaves; ovisac ± white, on a dried leaf or stem.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Agrostis curtisii; Avenella flexuosa; Calamagrostis; Festuca ovina; Koeleria askoldensis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Anophococcus, Eriococcus, inermis.

references

Jansen (1999b), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Malumphy, Ostrauskas & Pye (2010a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Eucosma scorzonerana

Eucosma scorzonerana (Benander, 1942)

on Scozonera

parasite

Larvae in the flower heads.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Scorzonera humilis.

Perhaps also Hypochaeris maculata.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as full-grown larva in a cocoon in the soil.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Huemer (2005a), Klemich (2007a), Kubasik (2011a), Palmqvist & Sjökvist (2013a), Trematerra & Sciarretta (1998a).

Clepsis coriacanus

Clepsis coriacanus (Rebel, 1894)

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae in a web at the leaves.

host plants

Artemisia argentea, thuscula; Astydamia latifolia; Bituminaria bituminosa; Cistus monspeliensis; Fagonia cretica; Kleinia neriifolia; Lotus; Malus; Ononis; Paragymnopteris marantae; Pelargonium; Periploca laevigata; Phelipanche; Plocama pendula; Rhamnus crenulata; Rhus coriaria; Rubus ulmifolius; Rumex lunaria; Tamarix gallica.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum.

synonyms

Clepsis coriacana.

references

Dantart (2010b), Klimesch (1987a), Lepiforum (2020).

Choristoneura simonyi

Choristoneura simonyi (Rebel, 1892)

polyphagous

parasite

Larvae in a web at the leaves.

host plants

Adenocarpus foliolosus; Bupleurum salicifolium subsp. aciphyllum; Clinopodium; Coffea arabica; Cytisus proliferus; Erica arborea; Globularia salicina; Jasminum odoratissimum; Kleinia neriifolia; Laurus novocanariensis; Nicotiana glauca; Pelargonium; Rosa banksiae; Rubus; Rumex lunaria; Schinus molle .

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum.

references

Klimesch (1987a), Lepiforum (2020).

Phenacoccus madeirensis

Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, 1923

Madeira mealybug

polyphagous

Phnenacoccus madierensis on Osteospermum jucundum

Osteospermum jucundum, infestation (from Stathas ao)

parasite

Adult females have a grey oval body, covered by thin, white mealy wax; the ovisac covers the entire body.

host plants

Aloysia citriodora; Hibiscus rosa-sinensis; Lantana camara; Osteospermum jucundum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Ben-Dov Y & Sánchez-García (2015a), Masten Milek, Šimala & Markotić (2015a), Stathas, Kartsonas & Darras (2015a).

Asphondylia anatolica

Asphondylia anatolica Skuhravá & Çam, 1998

on Astragalus

parasite

Large, compound, terminal stem galls, with in all 10-15 larvae. The inside of each gall chamber is lined with mycelium. Pupation within the gall.

host plants

Fabaceae, narrowly monophagous

Astragalus lagopoides.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Çam (2003a), Skuhravá, Bayram, Çam, ao (2005a), Skuhravá & Çam (1998a), Skuhravá, Karimpour, Sadeghi, ao (2014a).

Acanthococcus mariannae

Acanthococcus mariannae Pelizzari, 2010

on Leptospermum

Acanthococcus mariannae

at left: adult females in their cocoons, at right larvae (from Pellizzari & Germain).

parasite

Both sexes, entirely wrapped in a white, woolly cocon, on the leaves; larvae on the branches.

host plants

Myrtaceae, monophagous

Leptospermum scoparium.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Uhleria mariannae.

references

Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Pellizzari & Germain (2010a).

Evergestis pallidata

Evergestis pallidata (Hufnagel, 1767)

chequered pearl, purple-backed cabbage worm

on Brassicaceae

parasite

Larvae in a web under the leaves.

host plants

Brassicaceae, oligofaag

Alliaria petiolata; Armoracia rusticana; Barbarea vulgaris; Brassica napus, oleracea, rapa; Capsella bursa-pastoris; Cardamine; Diplotaxis; Lepidium coronopus; Sinapis arvensis; Sisymbrium.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as fully fed larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

synonyms

Evergestis straminalis (Hübner, 1793).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum.

references

Bury (2014a), Lepiforum (2020), Pérez De-Gregorio (2006a), Schütze (1931a.

Spoladea recurvalis

Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius, 1775)

hawaiian beet webworm, spinach moth, maize moth

mainly on Amaranthaceae

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

polyphagous

Amaranthus caudatus, hybridus, retroflexus; Atriplex; Beta; Chenopodium; Glycine max; Gossypium; Plocama pendula; Spinacia oleracea; Tamarix canariensis; Zea mays.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

Pictures on Lepiforum.

synonyms

Hymenia, Spilomena, recurvalis.

references

Huertas Dionisio (2007a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ellis (2009a), Lepiforum (2020), Murria Beltrán (2008a), Ylla, Macià & Huertas Dionisio (2008a).

Euzophera pinguis

Euzophera pinguis (Haworth, 1811)

ash-bark knot-horn, olive pyralid moth, tabby knot-horn

on Fraxinus, Olea

parasite

The larvae tunnel and pupate in the bark of the stem and thick branches, in particular in the callus around old bark wounds.

host plants

Oleaceae, oligophagous

Fraxinus excelsior; Olea europaea.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Huertas Dionisio & Fuentes (2004a), Lepiforum (2020), Moussa, Choueiri, Youssef & El Riachy (2017a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schutze (1931a), Ylla, Macià & Huertas Dionisio (2008a).

Gemmamyces piceae

Gemmamyces piceae (Borthwick) Casagrande, 1969

on Picea

parasite

Buds swollen, malformed, likewise the young shoots.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Picea abies, engelmannii, pungens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Cucurbitaria piceae Borthwick,1909. The anamorph is Megaloseptoria mirabilis Naumov, 1925.

references

Brandenburger (1985a: 19), Černý, Pešková, Soukup, ao (2016a), Jaklitsch Voglmayr (2017a), Quaedvlieg, Verkley, Shin, ao (2013a), Roskam (2020a).

Planococcus ficus

Planococcus ficus (Signoret, 1875)

on woody plants

Planococcus ficus

from Mifsud ao.

parasite

Scales on the branches

host plants

polyphagous

Dieffenbachia; Ficus elastica; Nerium oleander; Punica granatum; Vitis vinifera.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Hellrigl (2004a), Kaydan, Ülgentürk, Zeki, ao (2004a), Masten Milek, Šimala, Pintar & Markotić (0000a), Mifsud, Falzon, Malumphy ao (2012a), Seljak (2008a, 2010a), Şi̇şman & Ülgentürk (2010a).

Loxostege turbidalis

Loxostege turbidalis (Treitschke, 1828)

on Achillea, Artemisia

parasite

Larvae in a silken tube at the plants.

host plants

Asteraceae, oligophagous

Achillea millefolium; Artemisia campestris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Phlyctaenodes turbidalis.

references

Lepiforum (2020), Mitterberger (1931a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a),

Cochylis epilinana

Cochylis epilinana Duponchel, 1842

on Linum

parasite

Larvae bore in the green fruits.

host plants

Linaceae, monophagous

Linum campanulatum, catharticum, narbonense, usitatissimum.

Klimesch writes that the moth has been bred from the fruits of Asphodelus “microcarpus”; this cannot possibly the same species; see also the discussion in Lepiforum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Cochylis epiliana; Conchylis epilinana.

references

Klimesch (1987a), Lepiforum (2020), Schütze (1931a), Wimmer (1997a).

Hodebertia testalis

Hodebertia testalis (Fabricius, 1794)

on Cynanchum

parasite

Larvae among spun young leaves

host plants

Apocynaceae, monophagous

Cynanchum acutum.

Outside of Europa also on other genera, mainly of the same family.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum.

synonyms

Palpita testalis.

references

Hayden & Minno (2016a), Lepiforum (2020), Lévai, Kelemen & Majláth (2015a), Nel (2002a), Ylla, Macià & Huertas Dionisio (2008a).

Cochylimorpha decolorella

Cochylimorpha decolorella (Zeller, 1839)

on ? Anacyclus, ? Argyranthemum

parasite

The biology of the larva is unknown. Diapausing larvae haven been found in the dried stems of Anacyclus; the moths were flying around Argyranthemum.

host plants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Anacyclus radiatus; Argyranthemum frutescens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Stenodes chamomillana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851).

references

Klimesch (1987a), Nel (2002a).

Lobesia euphorbiana

Lobesia euphorbiana (Freyer, 1842)

on Euphorbia

parasite

Larvae in the young leaves spun together.

host plants

Euphorbiaceae, monophagous

Euphorbia amygdaloides, cyparissias, palustris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

See Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Lobesiodes, Polychrosis euphorbiana.

references

Disqué (1905a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Ancylis upupana

Ancylis upupana (Treitschke, 1835)

dark roller

on deciduous trees

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

restricted polyphagous

Betula pendula; Quercus; Tilia; Ulmus minor.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni, Swatschek.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Ancylis obtusana

Ancylis obtusana (Haworth, 1811)

small buckthorn roller

on Frangula, Rhamnus

parasite

Larve among spun leaves.

host plants

Rhamnaceae, oligophagous

Frangula alnus; .Rhamnus cathartica, saxatilis.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

See Swatschek.

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Steganoptycha obtusana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Nel (2002a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Revilla & Gastón (2017a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Ancylis mitterbacheriana

Ancylis mitterbacheriana (Denis & Schiffermacher, 1775)

red roller

on Fagus, Quercus, etc.

parasite

Larva in a rolled leaf.

host plants

mainly Fagaceae, limited polyphagous

Castanea sativa; Fagus sylvatica; Quercus robur.

Lepiforum also shows images of feeding on Corylus avellana; Rubus. Not clear in how far this is a normal situation.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni, Swatschek.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Szabóky & Csóka (2010a.

Ancylis diminutana

Ancylis diminutana (Haworth, 1811)

small festooned roller

on Salix

parasite

Larvae in a folded leaf margin.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Salix caprea, cinerea, fragilis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni, Swatschek.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Šumpich (2011b), Swatschek (1958a).

Ancylis geminana

Ancylis geminana (Donovan, 1861)

festooned roller

on Salix

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Salix aurita, cinerea.

Occurrence on Salix caprea, repens is doubtful.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

synonyms

Ancylis biarcuana Stephens, 1834.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum (2020), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Ancylis unguicella

Ancylis unguicella (Linnaeus, 1758)

broken-barred roller

on Calluna, Erica

parasite

Larvae in a solken tube over the plants.

host plants

Ericaceae, oligophagous

Calluna vulgaris; Erica carnea, cinerea.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum (2020), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Wegner (2010a).

Ancylis comptana

Ancylis comptana (Frölich, 1828)

little roller, strawberry leaf-roller

on herbs

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

polyphagous

Dryas octopetala; Fragaria; Potentilla erecta; Rosa; Rubus caesius, idaeus; Sanguisorba minor; Thymus.

phenology

Bivoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum (2020), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a).Nel (2002a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Ancylis myrtillana

Ancylis myrtillana (Treitschke, 1830)

bilberry roller

on Vaccinium

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Ericaceae, monophagous

Vaccinium myrtillus, uliginosum.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Swatschek, Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Ancylis unculana

Ancylis unculana (Haworth, 1811)

buckthorn roller

on Frangula, Rhamnus, etc.

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

mainly Rhamnaceae

Frangula alnus; Rhamnus cathartica.

References to the following species probably are more or less exceptional: Cornus sanguinea; Populus; Prunus spinosa; Rubus idaeus; Vaccinium myrtillus.

phenology

Bivoltine; hibernation as fully grown larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni. The description of the larva by Swatschek is based on material collected from Rubus.

synonyms

Ancylis derasana (Haworth, 1811).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1973a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Hylesinus fraxini

Hylesinus fraxini (Panzer, 1779)

ash bark beetle

on Fraxinus

Hyesinus fraxini: "bark rose"

“bark rose” (from WSL.CH)

parasite

In spring the female bores a horizontal gallery in the bark, depositing a series of eggs, each one in a separate chamber. The emerging larvae then each make a short vertical gallery from their egg chamber. Before she can oviposition the female goes through a period of maturation feeding. She the bores in the green bark of a young tree. Repeated infections by a number of females may induce cankerous swellings, called bark roses.

host plants

Oleaceae, oligophagous

Fraxinus excelsior; Olea europaea.

phenology

Univoltine.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Buhr (1964a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Lukášová & Zimová (2015a), Roskam (2019a).

Acanthococcus thymi

Acanthococcus thymi (von Paula Schrank, 1801)

on small shrubs, etc.

parasite

Female scales op to 3 mm, on the branches.

host plants

polyphagous

Artemisia campestris subsp. borealis, herba-alba; Calluna; Centaurea solstitialis; Daphne gnidium; Erica arborea, carnea, scoparia, tetralix; Salicornia; Santolina rosmarinifolia; Suaeda vera; Teucrium; Thymelaea villosa; Thymus mastichina, vulgaris; Veronica.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Eriococcus thymi; Rhizococcus gnidii Signoret, 1875.

references

Fetykó (2014a), Gomez-Menor Ortega (1948a, 1957a, 1960a), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a) .

Acanthococcus roboris

Acanthococcus roboris (Goux, 1931)

on deciduous trees

Acanthococcus roboris: female with ovisac

female with ovisac (from Spodek ao)

parasite

Adult female red, oval, up to 5 mm long with up to one cm long ovisac. Probably parthenogenetic. In bark crevices of stem and branches.

host plants

restricted polyphagous

Aesculus hippocastanum; Castanea sativa; Pterocarya fraxinifolia; Quercus coccifera, infectoria subsp. veneris, petraea, pubescens, robur.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a). Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Spodek, Ben-Dov & Mendel (2013a).

Mycosphaerella isariphora

Mycosphaerella isariphora (Desmazières) Johanson, 1884

on Stellaria

Mycosphaerella isariphora: ascomata on Stellaria holostea

Stellaria holostea, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Laakdal, Ossenbroeken, 26.i.2020 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: perithecia

Mycosphaerella isariphora: asci

perithecium with asci

Mycosphaerella isariphora: asci

asci

Mycosphaerella isariphora: ascospores

ascospores

Mycosphaerella isariphora: ascospores

ascospores

Phacellium episphaerium

same material, a few days later

Phacellium episphaerium

bundle of sterile hyphae

Phacellium episphaerium

Phacellium episphaerium

Mycosphaerella isariphora: ascomata on Stellaria holostea

detail

parasite

Ascosporen hyalien, 1-septate, 3-4 x 10-14 µm.

host plants

Caryophyllaceae, monophagous

Stellaria holostea, media.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Mycosphaerella isariophora: Ellis & Ellis.

notes

The observation that from material of Mycosphaerella isariphora after a short while Phacellium episphaerium developed is in indication at the latter is the anamorph of the first one. This agrees with the observation by Mułenko & Kozłowska, who frequently found both taxa together, “even even at the same sites, causing combined infections”. It is commonly assumed that Mycosphaerella isariphora is the teleomorph of Septoria stellariae, but that assumption is doubted by Verkley ao.

references

Ellis & Ellis (1997a), Mułenko & Kozłowska (2010a), Verkley, Quaedvlieg, Shin ao (2013a)

Diaspidiotus lenticularis

Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger, 1912)

on deciduous trees

parasite

Scales on the thin branches.

host plants

restricted polyphagous

Castanea sativa; Ficus carica; Fraxinus excelsior; Nerium oleander; Olea europaea; Prunus domestica; Quercus frainetto, robur, suber; Ribes rubrum.

Şi̇şman & Ülgentürk also mention Cycas revoluta.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Quadraspidiotus lenticularis.

references

Gomez-Menor Ortega (1960a), Hellrigl (2004a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Pellizzari, Porcelli, Seljak & Kozár (2011a), Şi̇şman & Ülgentürk (2010a), Trencheva, Gounari, Trenchev & Kapaxidi (2009a).

Targionia vitis

Targionia vitis (Signoret, 1876)

on deciduous trees

Targionia vitis: female scale

female scale (from Spodek ao).

parasite

Scales on the branches.

host plants

restricted polyphagous

Castanea sativa; Fagus sylvatica; Platanus orientalis; Quercus cerris, coccifera, ilex, infectoria subsp. veneris, ithaburensis, petraea, pubescens, robur, suber; Salix; Vitis vinifera.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as adult female.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Gomez-Menor Ortega (1960a), Hellrigl (2004a), Lombardi (1938a), Masten Milek, Seljak, Šimala ao (2016a), Mifsud, Mazzeo, Russo & Watson (2014a), Spodek, Ben-Dov & Mendel (2013a), Trencheva, Gounari, Trenchev & Kapaxidi (2009a).

Kermes gibbosus

Kermes gibbosus Signoret, 1875

on Quercus

parasite

Scales on the branches.

host plants

Fagaceae, narrowly monophagous

Quercus cerris.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as second instar larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Pellizzari, Porcelli, Convertini & Marotta (2012a), Trencheva, Gounari, Trenchev & Kapaxidi (2009a).

Eriopeltis festucae

Eriopeltis festucae (Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834)

cottony grass scale

on grasses

parasite

Scales on the leaves

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Agrostis capillaris; Avenella flexuosa; Brachypodium pinnatum, retusum, rupestre, sylvaticum; Bromopsis erecta; Dactylis glomerata; Elytrigia repens; Festuca rubra; Milium effusum; Nardus stricta; Poa pratensis; Schedonorus pratensis; Stipa.

Łagowska & Golan also mention Carex.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Eriopeltis brachypodii Giard, 1893; E. rasinae Borchsenius, 1956.

references

Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Fetykó (2014a), Hellrigl (2004a), Jansen (1999b), Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a), Łagowska & Golan (2002a), Manawadu (1986a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Seljak (2010a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Antecerococcus intermedius

Antecerococcus intermedius (Balachowsky, 1930)

on Thymus, etc.

parasite

Scales on the stems.

host plants

Lamiaceae, oligophagous

Origanum; Thymus pulegioides & subsp. pannonicus, serpyllum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Cerococcus cycliger Goux, 1932.

references

Fetykó (2014a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a), Łagowska & Golan (2002a), ScaleNet (2020), Seljak (2010a).

Kermes ilicis

Kermes ilicis (Linnaeus, 1758)

on Quercus

parasite

Scales on the branches.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus coccifera, ilex, petraea, pubescens, pyrenaica, suber.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Gomez-Menor Ortega (1960a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a), Pellizzari, Porcelli, Convertini & Marotta (2012a), Stathas, Kartsonas & Skouras (2013a).

Acanthococcus cingulatus

Acanthococcus cingulatus (Kiritshenko, 1940)

polyphagos

parasite

Scales at the roots.

host plants

Achillea millefolium, ochroleuca; Artemisia absinthium, austriaca, dracunculus; Astragalus; Camphorosma; Centaurea orientalis; Clematis; Cyanus segetum; Dianthus; Galium; Koeleria macrantha; Medicago sativa; Potentilla; Salix; Stipa; Tanacetum; Taraxacum; Trinia; Vitis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Anophococcus, Rhizococcus, cingulatus.

references

Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a).

Acanthococcus agropyri

Acanthococcus agropyri (Borchsenius, 1949)

on grasses

parasite

Scales on the leaves; adult females yellow, oval, up to 4 mm, often in compact colonies.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Agrostis capillaris; Agropyron cristatum, fragile & subsp. sibiricum; Brachypodium pinnatum; Bromopsis erecta; Cynodon dactylon; Elytrigia repens; Leymus angustus, racemosus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Anophococcus, Eriococcus, Rhizococcus, agropyri.

references

Fetykó (2014a), Hellrigl (2004a), Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a), Łagowska & Golan (2002a.

Trionymus aberrans

Trionymus aberrans Goux, 1938

on grasses

parasite

Scales in the leaf sheaths.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Aegilops; Agrostis capillaris; Ammophila arenaria;Avena; Briza media; Elytrigia repens; Piptatherum miliaceum;Schedonorus pratensis; Triticum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Fetykó (2014a), Jansen (1999b), Kaydan, Ülgentürk, Zeki, ao (2004a), Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a), Łagowska & Golan (2002a), Pellizzari, Porcelli, Seljak & Kozár (2011a).

Diaspidiotus perniciosus

Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock,1881)

San José scale

on deciduous trees

Diaspidiotus perniciosus

Prunus dulcis © United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs

parasite

Scales on the branches.

host plants

restricted polyphagous

Corylus avellana; Juglans regia; Malus domestica, pumila; Prunus dulcis; Pyrus communis; Rosa; Sorbus; Tamarix parviflora.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Comstockaspis perniciosa; Aspidiotus, Quadriaspidiotus, perniciosus.

references

Fetykó (2014a), Gomez-Menor Ortega (1960a), Hellrigl (2004a) , Jansen (1999b), Japoshvili & Karaca (2002a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a), Łagowska, Golan, Kot ao (2015a) , Malumphy & Kahrer (2011a), Roques, Cleary, Matsiakh & Eschem (2017a), Seljak (2010a).

Rhodococcus perornatus

Rhodococcus perornatus (Cockerell & Parrott, 1899)

rose soft scale

on Rosa

Rhodococcus perornatus: scales on Rosa x damascena

Rosa x damascena (from Yilmaz ao)

parasite

Scales on the stems.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Rosa x damascena.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

notes

A pest in rose oil production.

references

Japoshvili & Karaca (2002a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a), Yilmaz, Çakir & Demi̇rözer (2018a).

Lepidosaphes newsteadi

Lepidosaphes newsteadi (Šulc, 1895)

pine oyster shell scale

on conifers

parasite

Scales on the needles.

host plants

Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Abies alba, nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani, pinsapo; Cedrus; Cryptomeria; Picea pungens; Pinus nigra & subsp. pallasiana, sylvestris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Insulaspis newsteadi.

references

Akkuzu, Arslangündoğdu & Selmi (2006a), Ćwierzyk & Dziedzicka (1987a), Dziedzicka (1988a), Hellrigl (2004a), Japoshvili & Karaca (2002a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Malumphy & Kahrer (2011a), Ülgentürk, Çanakçioğlu & Kaygin (2004a) .

Phyllostroma myrtilli

Phyllostroma myrtilli (Kaltenbach, 1874)

heather cushion scale

on Vaccinium

parasite

Scales at the undersides of the leves. The females are yellowish brown, oval, 3 mm long; they form a white, up to 5 mm long ovisac.

host plants

Ericaceae, monophagous

Vaccinium myrtillus, vitis-idaea.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Ćwierzyk & Dziedzicka (1987a), Gavrilov (2010a), Hellrigl (2004a), Jansen (1999b), Malumphy, Ostrauskas & Pye (2010a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a).

Luzulaspis frontalis

Luzulaspis frontalis Green, 1928

long-headed soft scale

on Carex, Luzula

parasite

Scales on the leaves.

host plants

Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Carex brizoides, remota; Luzula pilosa.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Ćwierzyk & Dziedzicka (1987a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Şi̇şman & Ülgentürk (2010a).

Luzulaspis luzulae

Luzulaspis luzulae (Dufour, 1864)

woodrush soft scale

on Juncus, Luzula

parasite

Scales on the leaves

host plants

Juncaceae, oligophagous

Juncus; Luzula campestris, pilosa.

References to other genera are dubious.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Ćwierzyk & Dziedzicka (1987a), Dziedzicka (1988a), Hellrigl (2004a), Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Eulecanium ciliatum

Eulecanium ciliatum (Douglas, 1891)

on deciduous trees

parasite

Scales on the young shoots.

host plants

restricted polyphagous

Acer campestre, pseudoplatanus; Corylus avellana; Crataegus monogyna, rhipidophylla; Cydonia oblonga; Prunus domestica, persica, spinosa; Quercus; Ribes aureum; Rosa.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation as second instar larva.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Ćwierzyk & Dziedzicka (1987a), Jansen (1999b), Trencheva, Gounari, Trenchev & Kapaxidi (2009a), Ülgentürk & Toros (1999a).

Acanthococcus herbaceus

Acanthococcus herbaceus Danzig, 1962

on grass-like plants

host plants

narrowly polyphagous

Brachypodium pinnatum; Calamagrostis; Carex; Cynodon dactylon; Luzula campestris; Piptatherum miliaceum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Anaphococcus, Eriococcus, Rhizococcus, herbaceus.

references

Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Ćwierzyk & Dziedzicka (1987a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Atrococcus cracens

Atrococcus cracens Williams, 1962

on herbs

parasite

Scales at the roots.

host plants

polyphagous

Glechoma hederacea; Knautia arvensis; Leontodon hispidus; Pilosella echioides; Taraxacum officinale; Tolpis staticifolia; Vaccinium vitis-idaea; Veronica chamaedrys; Vicia.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Ćwierzyk & Dziedzicka (1987a), Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a).

Marchalina hellenica

Marchalina hellenica (Gennadius, 1883)

on Abies, Picea, Pinus

Marchalina hellenica female

female (from Hodgson & Gounari).

parasite

The scales in bark fissures on the stems, concealed by whitish wax wool. Probably fully parthenogenetic.

host plants

Pinaceae, oligophagous

Abies cephalonica, nordmanniana; Picea engelmannii, orientalis; Pinus brutia, halepensis, nigra subsp. pallasiana, pinea, sylvestris.

phenology

Univoltine; hibernation at the second larval instar.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Pseudococcus caricus (Gennadius, 1883).

notes

Because of its abundance and copious honey-dew production this species plays an important role in the production of “pine honey”.

references

Akkuzu, Arslangündoğdu & Selmi (2006a), Bacandritsos (2002a, 2004a), Bacandritsos, Saitanis & Papanastasiou (2004a), Hodgson & Gounari (2006a), Pellizzari, Porcelli, Seljak & Kozár (2011a), Ülgentürk, Çanakçioğlu & Kaygin (2004a), Ülgentürk, Evren, Ayhan ao (2012a).

Nemolecanium graniforme

Nemolecanium graniforme (Wünn, 1921)

on Abies

parasite

Scales on the needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, monophagous

Abies alba, cephalonica, nebrodensis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Lecanium graniforme.

references

Ćwierzyk & Dziedzicka (1987a), Dziedzicka (1988a), Hellrigl (2004a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Mazzeo, Nucifora, Russo ao (2016a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Acanthococcus greeni

Acanthococcus greeni (Newstead, 1898)

Newstead’s felt scale

on grasses

parasite

Scales on the leaves.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Aegilops geniculata;Ammophila arenaria; Brachypodium; Calamagrostis arundinacea, canadensis, epigeios; Carex; Chrysopogon gryllus; Corynephorus canescens; Dactylis; Deschampsia; Elytrigia intermedia, repens; Festuca ovina; Koeleria macrantha; Lolium perenne; Melica; Nardus stricta; Phleum; Poa; Schedonorus pratensis; Stipa pennata.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Eriococcus, Rhizococcus, greeni.

references

Hellrigl (2004a), Jansen (1999b), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a), Şi̇şman & Ülgentürk (2010a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Acanthococcus aceris

Acanthococcus aceris Signoret, 1875

maple felt scale

on deciduous trees

parasite

Scales on the branches, often in an axil. Adult female oval, chestnut colored, covered with white wax powder, 2 mm long. Ovisac greyish, up to 4 mm long.

host plants

polyphagous

Acer campestre, circinatum, platanoides, pseudoplatanus; Aesculus hippocastanum; Carpinus betulus; Elaeagnus angustifolia; Fagus sylvatica; Malus; Platanus orientalis; Pyrus, Quercus pubescens, robur; Salix caprea; Ulmus.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Acanthochermes, Eriococcus, aceris.

references

Ćwierzyk & Dziedzicka (1987a), Dziedzicka (1988a), Gavrilov (2010a), Jansen (1999b)m Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Kozár, Kaydan, Konczné Benedicty & Szita (2013a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Seljak (2010a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Puto pilosellae

Puto pilosellae (Šulc, 1898)

hairy mealybug

on grasses and herbs

parasite

Scales on the undersides of the leaves.

host plants

polyphagous

Fragaria; Hieracium; Lapsana; Plantago lanceolata, media; Salvia; Taraxacum officinale; Thymus praecox, serpyllum; Vaccinium oxycoccos; Vicia.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Ceroputo pilosellae.

references

Hellrigl (2004a), Kaydan, Ülgentürk, Zeki, ao (2004a), Köhler (2011a), Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a), Malumphy, Ostrauskas & Pye (2010a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Seljak (2010a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Heterococcus nudus

Heterococcus nudus (Green, 1926)

on grasses

parasite

Scales in the leaf sheaths.

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Agrostis capillaris, stolonifera; Briza media; Bromus; Dactylis glomerata; Danthonia decumbens; Elytrigia repens; Lolium perenne; Schedonorus arundinaceus; Sorghum halepense.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Heterococcus borkhsenii Morrison, 1945; H. variabilis Schmutterer, 1958.

references

Ćwierzyk & Dziedzicka (1987a), Fetykó (2014a), Hellrigl (2004a), Jansen (1999b), Koteja & Żak-Ogaza (1966a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Kozár & Ostafichuk (1987a), Pellizzari, Porcelli, Seljak & Kozár (2011a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Phenacoccus interruptus

Phenacoccus interruptus Green, 1923

on grasses etc.

host plants

Cyperaceae, Poaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Agropyron; Bromus; Calamagrostis epigeios; Carex hirta; Corynephorus canescens; Danthonia decumbens; Elymus; Elytrigia repens; Festuca filiformis, ovina; Schedonorus pratensis.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Paroudablis interruptus; Phenacoccus evelinae (Tereznikova, 1968).

references

Hellrigl (2004a), Łagowska & Golan (2002a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Seljak (2010a), Simon & Kalandyk-Kołodziejczyk (2012a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Palaeococcus fuscipennis

Palaeococcus fuscipennis (Burmeister, 1835)

on conifers

parasite

The scales live freely on the bark of the crown. The produce much honeydew, that in turn may induce thick layers of sooty mold.

host plants

Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, narrowly polyphagous

Abies; Cupressus sempervirens; Picea; Pinus brutia, canariensis, halpensis, pinea, sylvestris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Akkuzu, Arslangündoğdu & Selmi (2006a), Eizaguirre, Arenas, Lumbierres & Pons (2002a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Şi̇şman & Ülgentürk (2010a, Soria, Moreno, Viñuela & del Estal (2000a), Ülgentürk, Evren, Ayhan ao (2012a).

Puto superbus

Puto superbus (Leonardi, 1907)

polyphagous

parasite

The scales vaguely resemble a woodlouse covered with white wax wool. The female is up to 5 mm long and has functional legs.

host plants

Convolvulus althaeoides subsp. tenuissimus; Galium; Pinus pinaster; Quercus; Teucrium fruticans.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Puto palinuri Marotta & Tranfaglia, 1993; Douglasiella caballeroi Gomez-Menor Ortega, 1948.

references

Gomez-Menor Ortega (1948a), Hellrigl (2004a), Kaydan, Ülgentürk, Zeki, ao (2004a), Mifsud, Mazzeo, Russo & Watson (2014a), Soria, Moreno, Viñuela & del Estal (2000a).

Dynaspidiotus britannicus

Dynaspidiotus britannicus Dynaspidiotus britannicus

polyphagous on woody plants.

parasite

Female scales 1.5-2.5 mm long, broadly oval, dark yellowish brown.

host plants

Buxus sempervirens; Daphne gnidium; Hedera helix; Laurus nobilis; Myrtus communis; Paeonia; Pinus brutia, halepensis; Viburnum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

synonyms

Diaspidiotus, Dinaspidiotus, britannicus.

references

Gomez-Menor Ortega (1957a), Hellrigl (2004a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Łagowska, Golan, Kot ao (2015a), Seljak (2010a), Soria, Moreno, Viñuela & del Estal (2000a).

Xylococcus filiferus

Xylococcus filiferus Löw, 1883

on Tilia

Xylococcus filiferus on Tilia

infection of a Tilia-branch (from Löw).

parasite

The adult females are pear-shaped and lack feet, eyes and antennae. They lay embedded in the bark, mostly in the axil of a branch. Posteriorly they bear a long, wavy, hollow thread-like appendage at the tip of which droplets of honeydew are exuded.

host plants

Malvaceae, monophagous

Tilia cordata.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

references

Buhr (1965a), Hellrigl (2004a), Löw (1883a), Roskam (2019a), Schmutterer & Hoffmann (2003a), Soria, del Estal & Viñuela (1998a), Żak-Ogaza & Koteja (1964a).

Caryocolum petryi

Caryocolum petryi (Hoffmann, 1899)

on Gypsophila

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Caryophyllaceae, monophagous

Gypsophila fastigiata, paniculata, repens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

pupa

See Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Gnorimoschema, Lita, petryi; Lita repentella Chrétien, 1908.

references

Huemer (1988b), Huemer & Luquet (1992a), Kaitila (1996a), Klimesch (1954a), Pałka & Rynarzewski (2013a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Šulcs & Šulcs (1989a).

Salebriopsis albicilla

Salebriopsis albicilla (Herrich-Schäffer, 1849)

lime knot-horn

mainly on Tilia

parasite

Larvae in leaf rolls that previously have been made by other caterpillars, and vacated.

host plants

Tiliaceae etc, polyphagous

? Alnus; ? Corylus; Salix aurita, caprea; Tilia cordata.

phenology

Hibernation as pupa in a cocoon in the soil.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Nephopteryx albicilla.

references

Huisman & Koster (1995a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Roweck & Savenkov (2007a), Schütze (1931a).

Pleurota bicostella

Pleurota bicostella (Clerck, 1759)

light streak

on Calluna, Erica

parasite

Larvae in a spinning on the plant.

host plants

Ericaceae, oligophagous

Calluna vulgaris; Erica cinerea, tetralix.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

See Fetz.

references

Baldizzone (2008a), Emmet & Langmaid 2002b), Fetz (1994a), Huemer (2012a), Huisman & Koster (1995a), Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Wegner (2010a).

Sciota elegiella

Sciota elegiella (Zerny, 1929)

on Populus

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Populus alba.

phenology

Multivoltine; hibernation as larva.

distribution within Europe

Spain; until recently only known from North Africa.

larva, pupa

See Huertas-Dionisio ao.

references

Huertas-Dionisio, Gastón, Ylla & Macià (2017a).

Sciota rhenella

Sciota rhenella (Zincken, 1818)

new poplar knot-horn

on Populus

parasite

Larvae between sandwiched leaves.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Populus alba, x canadensis, nigra, tremula.

phenology

Multivoltine; hibernation as imago.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Huertas-Dionisio ao, Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Nephopteryx rhenella; Sciota rhenella laetifica (Ragonot, 1893).

references

Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Huertas-Dionisio, Gastón, Ylla & Macià (2017a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a).

Orthotaenia undulana

Orthotaenia undulana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)

woodland marble, dusky leafroller moth

broadly polyphagous

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Acer campestre; Alnus; Betula pendula; Epilobium; Fragaria; Hippophae rhamnoides; Juniperus; Lonicera; Lycopus europaeus; Myrica; Pinus; Quercus; Ribes; Rosa rugosa; Rubus idaeus; Salix; Sorbus aucuparia; Teucrium scorodonia; Ulmus; Urtica; Vaccinium myrtillus, vitis-idaea; Veronica.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni, Swatschek.

synonyms

Olethreutes undulana; O. urticana (Hübner, 1799).

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Łabanowski & Soika (2012a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Swatschek (1958a).

Hedya ochroleucana

Hedya ochroleucana (Frölich, 1828)

buff-tipped marble, off-white hedya moth

on Rosa

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Rosaceae, monofaag

Rosa canina, centifolia, lutea, rugosa.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Olethreutes ochroleucana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Łabanowski & Soika (2012a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a).

Celypha lacunana

Celypha lacunana (Denis & Schiffermmüller, 1775)

common marble, dark strawberry tortrix

broadly polyphagous

parasite

Larvae in spun leaves.

host plants

Anthriscus sylvestris; Artemisia vulgaris; Atriplex; Betula; Caltha; Chenopodium; Chrysanthemum; Chrysanthemum; Comarum palustre; Epilobium; Fagus; Filipendula ulmaria; Fragaria; Glechoma hederacea; Hibiscus syriacus; Inula conyzae; Lamium; Larix; Ligustrum; Lysimachia; Matricaria; Mentha aquatica; Ononis; Picea sitchensis; Plantago lanceolata; Pteridium aquilinum; Ranunculus; Rubus idaeus; Salix viminalis; Sanguisorba minor; Urtica dioica; Vicia.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni, Swatschek.

synonyms

Olethreutes, Syricoris, lacunana.

references

Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b) , Klimesch (1989a), Łabanowski & Soika (2012a), Lepiforum (2020), Meijerman & Ulenberg (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Requena i Miret (1998a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a).

Dichomeris limosellus

Dichomeris limosellus (Schläger, 1849)

on Fabaceae

parasite

Larvae between spun leaves.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Medicago sativa; Onobrychis viciifolia; Trifolium pratense.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Dichomeris limosella; Ypsolophus limosellus.

references

Gastón, Revilla & Vives Moreno (2018a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a, Schütze (1931a).

Dichomeris ustalella

Dichomeris ustalella (Fabricius, 1794)

worcester crest

on deciduous trees

parasite

Larvae between sandwiched leaves.

host plants

polyphagous

Acer campestre, pseudoplatanus; Betula pendula; Carpinus betulus; Corylus avellana; Fagus sylvatica; Prunus; Quercus; Salix; Tilia cordata.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Ypsolophus ustalellus.

references

Bland, Corley, Emmet ao (2002a), Gastón, Revilla & Vives Moreno (2018a), Huemer (2012a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a).

Caloptilia perseae

Caloptilia perseae (Busck, 1920)

on Persea

mine.

Young larva make a gallery mine; later stages, and also the pupa, in a folded rolled leaf margin..

host plants

Lauraceae, monophagous

Persea americana.

distribution within Europe

Canary Islands.

notes

Recently introduced exotic species.

references

Gastón, Revilla & Vives Moreno (2018a).

Eidophasia messingiella

Eidophasia messingiella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1842)

bitter-cress diamond-back

on Cardamine, etc.

parasite

Larvae in leaves of which the margins have been pulled upwards by spinning.

host plants

Brassicaceae, oligophagous

Cardaria draba; Cardamine amara, pratensis; Lunaria rediviva; Sisymbrium strictissimum.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni.

references

Gielis Huisman, Kuchlein ao (1985a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Thomann (1956a), Wieser & Huemer (1997a).

Ypsolopha asperella

Ypsolopha asperella (Linnaeus, 1761)

scarce smudge

on woody Rosaceae

parasite

Larvae among spun leaves.

host plants

Rosaceae, oligophagous

Cotoneaster; Crataegus monogyna; Malus domestica; Prunus spinosa.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka, Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cerostoma asperellum.

references

Lepiforum (2020), Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Thomann (1956a).

Ypsolopha persicella

Ypsolopha persicella (Fabricius, 1787)

on Prunus

parasite

Larvae in a web among the leaves.

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Prunus dulcis, persics.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka, Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Cerostoma persicellum.

references

Gershenson, Pavlíček, Chikatunov & Nevo (2002a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Thomann (1956a).

Teleiodes saltuum

Teleiodes saltuum (Zeller, 1878)

on Larix, ? Pinus

parasite

Larvae between spun needles.

host plants

Pinaceae, oligophagous

Larix decidua.

According to Huemer & Karsholt also Pinus sylvestris.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Teleia saltuum.

references

Huemer (2012a), Huisman & Koster (1997a), Kuchlein, Gielis, Huisman, ao (1988a), Lepiforum (2020), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins & Steeman (2013a), Schütze (1931a), Thomann (1956a).

Carpatolechia proximella

Carpatolechia proximella (Hübner, 1796)

black-speckled groundling

on Alnus, Betula

parasite

Larvae in folded leaves.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Alnus cordata, glutinosa, viridis; Betula pendula, pubescens.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2020).

larva, pupa

Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni.

synonyms

Teleia, Teleiodes, Telphusa, proximella, proximellus.

references

Bachmaier (1965a), Baldizzone (2008a), Bland, Corley, Emmet ao (2002a), Huisman & Koster (2000a), Kaitila (1996a), Lepiforum (20