Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


The order Diptera consists of two groups: midges (Nematocera) and true flies (Orthocera). Larvae of he relatively primitive Nematocera have a slender and a chitinised head. Larvae of the true flies have a much more compact build; moreover the head, with almost all of its organs has been almost completely reduced: maggots.