Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

spongy parenchyma

The lower half of the thickness of a leaf, consisting of loosely arranged cells with large air spaces between them. This tissue functions essentially for the exchange of gasses: supply of carbon dioxide and the removal of oxygen.

Fagus sylvatica: vertical section of the leaf

Fagus sylvatica: transverse section through a leaf with palissade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma below.