Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Cycas

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
stem scale Diaspididae Pseudaulacaspis pentagona
leaf scale Diaspididae Furchadiaspis zamiae
stem scale Pseudococcidae Pseudococcus calceolariae
stem scale Pseudococcidae Pseudococcus viburni
leaf leaf spot Cladosporiaceae Cladosporium cycadia
leaf leaf spot Microstromataceae Microstroma cycadis
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta cycadina
leaf leaf spot Pezizomycotina Leptothyrium cycadis
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta cycadina
leaf leaf spot Phyllostictaceae Phyllosticta cycadis
scale Diaspididae Hemiberlesia rapax
scale Diaspididae Furchadaspis zamiae
scale Diaspididae Hemiberlesia lataniae
root scale Rhizoecidae Rhizoecus americanus
scale Diaspididae Chrysomphalus aonidum
scale Coccidae Parasaissetia nigra
scale Diaspididae Chrysomphalus dictyospermi
stem scale Pseudococcidae Pseudococcus longispinus
leaf scale Coccidae Saissetia coffeae
stem vagrant Flatidae Metcalfa pruinosa
stem scale doubtful Diaspididae Diaspidiotus lenticularis
stem scale Coccidae Saissetia oleae
Diaspididae Aulacaspis yasumatsui
leaf scale Diaspididae Aspidiotus nerii
leaf scale Coccidae Coccus hesperidum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 25.v.2023