Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Ephedra major

synonym: Ephedra nebrodensis, vulgaris Willk.

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
fruit vagrant Rhopalidae Brachycarenus tigrinus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Scirtothrips inermis
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips frici
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips angusticeps
predator Eupelmidae Brasema stenus
seeds predator Torymidae Idiomacromerus ephedricola
predator Pteromalidae Mesopolobus arcanus
predator Pteromalidae Mesopolobus semenis
predator Eupelmidae Eupelmus urozonus
predator Eulophidae Aprostocetus lutescens
predator Eulophidae Baryscapus aenescens
predator Ormyridae Ormyrus cupreus
stem vagrant Miridae Hyoidea flavolimbata
leaf vagrant Erebidae Albarracina warionis
leaf vagrant Geometridae Kuchleria menadiara
leaf vagrant Geometridae Petrophora convergata
stem borer Buprestidae Yamina sanguinea
flower borer Pteromalidae Blascoa ephedrae
leaf bud gall Eurytomidae Eurytoma gallephedrae
unknown unknown Curculionidae Neoxyonyx strigatirostris
unknown unknown Curculionidae Theodorinus hispanicus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Paroxyonyx imitator
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mesoxyonyx osellanus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Platypteronyx maximi
stem vagrant Aphididae Ephedraphis ephedrae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 29.xii.2023