Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Ephedra

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
unknown scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus distinctus
fruit vagrant Rhopalidae Brachycarenus tigrinus
leaf vagrant Thripidae Scirtothrips inermis
flower hidden Thripidae Tenothrips frici
leaf hidden Thripidae Thrips angusticeps
leaf vagrant Geometridae Selidosema taeniolaria
leaf scale Diaspididae Aspidiotus nerii
unknown scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus sulci
leaf scale Diaspididae Mercetaspis halli
stem scale Diaspididae Leucaspis riccae
leaf vagrant Tenuipalpidae Brevipalpus lewisi
stem vagrant Tenuipalpidae Tenuipalpus ephedrae
stem hidden Ypsolophidae Ypsolopha milfontensis
stem scale Diaspididae Diaspidiotus cecconii
stem pustule Melanommataceae Herpotrichia ephedrae
stem pustule Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria distachya
stem vagrant Miridae Hyoidea lopezcoloni
stem vagrant Miridae Hyoidea stehliki
stem vagrant Miridae Hyoidea flavolimbata
leaf vagrant Miridae Hyoidea notaticeps
scale Diaspididae Dynaspidiotus ephedrarum
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Ephedromyia debilopalpis
leaf vagrant Erebidae Albarracina warionis
leaf vagrant Geometridae Kuchleria menadiara
leaf vagrant Geometridae Petrophora convergata
leaf bud gall Eurytomidae Eurytoma gallephedrae
flower borer Pteromalidae Blascoa ephedrae
stem borer Buprestidae Acmaeoderella adspersula
stem borer Buprestidae Yamina sanguinea
unknown unknown Curculionidae Neoxyonyx strigatirostris
unknown unknown Curculionidae Paroxyonyx maltsevi
unknown unknown Curculionidae Platypteronyx auritus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Platypteronyx maximi
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mesoxyonyx hispanicus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Mesoxyonyx sicardi
unknown unknown Curculionidae Theodorinus giustocaroli
unknown unknown Curculionidae Paroxyonyx imitator
unknown unknown Curculionidae Paroxyonyx cinctus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Paroxyonyx sicanus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Theodorinus lopezcoloni
unknown unknown Curculionidae Theodorinus hispanicus
unknown unknown Curculionidae Paroxyonyx imitator
stem vagrant Ypsolophidae Ypsolopha instabilella
stem gall Cecidomyiidae Xerephedromyia ustjurdensis


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 6.ii.2024