Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Equisetum arvense

field horsetail

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus ligneus
leaf leaf spot Monodidymaria equiseti
leaf leaf spot Helotiaacese Stamnaria persoonii
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta equiseti
stem borer Noctuidae Hydraecia micacea
leaf vagrant Delphacidae Javesella stali
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Macrosteles frontalis
stem borer Chrysomelidae Hippuriphila modeeri
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Dolerus pratorum
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Dolerus bimaculatus
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Dolerus eversmanni
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Dolerus bajulus
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Dolerus vestigialis
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Dolerus germanicus
unknown unknown doubtful Gelechiidae Gnorimoschema herbichii
leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Eriophyes equiseti
unknown borer larva Curculionidae Grypus brunnirostris
stem borer larva Curculionidae Grypus equiseti
stem borer Agromyzidae Liriomyza occipitalis
stem borer Agromyzidae Liriomyza equiseti
stem vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum equiseti
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum circumflexum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


To filter the table above, add a text to the search field (top right of the table).
To sort a column click on an arrow after the column name (both ascending and descending).
Sort multiple columns with Shift + click on the arrows.


The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 25.xi.2023