Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Polystichum

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root borer Curculionidae Syagrius intrudens
leaf vagrant Miridae Monalocoris filicis
leaf vagrant Miridae Bryocoris pteridis
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx filicum
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Hauptidia lapidicola
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Tenthredo ferruginea
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Strongylogaster macula
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Strongylogaster xanthocera
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Pachyprotasis rapae
leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Strongylogaster multifasciata
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurotulus nephrolepidis
leaf gall doubtful Cecidomyiidae Dasineura pteridicola
leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina polystichi
leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina wettsteiniana
leaf miner Tenthredinidae Aneugmenus coronatus
leaf miner Tineidae Psychoides filicivora
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Milesina neoexigua
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Milesina vogesiaca
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Milesina whitei
leaf vagrant Aphididae Amphorophora ampullata
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum circumflexum
stem borer rarely Blasticotomidae Blasticotoma filiceti


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 26.iii.2023