Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Papaver dubium

long-headed poppy

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
predator Eulophidae Aprostocetus forsteri
predator Tortricidae Pseudotorymus papaveris
leaf vagrant Lygaeidae Brachyplax tenuis
predator Eupelmidae Eupelmus aseculatus
leaf miner Curculionidae Stenocarus ruficornis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf down doubtful Peronosporales Peronospora arborescens
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
fruit borer Cecidomyiidae Dasineura papaveris
fruit gall Curculionidae Neoglocianus maculaalba
fruit gall Cynipidae Aylax minor
fruit gall Cynipidae Aylax papaveris
fruit gall Cynipidae Barbotinia oraniensis
flower gall Cynipidae Iraella hispanica
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe cruciferarum
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces orontii
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma fuscum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora magnusiana
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Melampsora populnea
root collar gall rarely Cynipidae Iraella ionescui


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 6.vii.2022