Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Papaver somniferum

opium poppy

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
predator Pteromalidae Trichomalus tenellus
predator Eupelmidae Eupelmus microzonus
predator Eurytomidae Eurytoma cynipsea
predator Torymidae Idiomacromerus luteus
predator Torymidae Idiomacromerus mesoplanus
predator Pteromalidae Trichomalus bracteatus
predator Eupelmidae Calosota obscura
predator Pteromalidae Homoporus subniger
stem borer Cerambycidae Parmena pubescens
leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Lasiocampa trifolii
root collar borer larva Curculionidae Stenocarus cardui
root collar borer larva Curculionidae Ethelcus denticulatus
fruit borer larva Curculionidae Neoglocianus albovittatus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Chromatomyia horticola
leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae
fruit borer Cecidomyiidae Dasineura papaveris
fruit gall Curculionidae Neoglocianus maculaalba
fruit gall Cynipidae Aylax papaveris
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe cruciferarum
leaf down Erysiphales Golovinomyces orontii
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora meconopsidis
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora somniferi
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma fuscum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza xanthocera
leaf miner Curculionidae Stenocarus ruficornis
stem borer Cynipidae Iraella luteipes
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 6.vii.2022