Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Actaea

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Dermateaceae Stagonosporopsis actaeae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Passalora actaeae
leaf leaf spot Marssonina actaeae
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Melanchra persicariae
leaf vagrant Geometridae Baptria tibiale
leaf vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia actaeata
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia subfuscata
fruit borer Geometridae Eupithecia immundata
flower hidden Geometridae Acasis appensata
leaf vagrant Geometridae Cepphis advenaria
leaf vagrant Geometridae Cepphis advenaria
leaf hidden Crambidae Anania luctualis
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Asterobemisia carpini
leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleurolobus wunni
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe aquilegiae var aquilegiae
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe aquilegiae var ranunculi
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza actaeae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza kaltenbachi
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia actaeae-agropyri
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia actaeae-elymi
leaf pustule Urocystidales Urocystis carcinodes
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum circumflexum


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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