Dichotomous table for leafminers
2a frass, at least partly, in strings; pupation outside the mine: Liriomyza xanthocera
2b frass in grains that lie at least their diameter apart; pupation in the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola
1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species
Not included in the key: Argopus nigritarsis.