Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on genus Anemone

Dichotomous table for gallers on Anemone

incl. Hepatica, Pulsatilla

by Hans Roskam

1a On above-ground plant parts => 2

1b Roots with nodule-shaped swellings. A. apennina, sylvestris, Hepatica nobilis, Pulsatilla vulgaris: Meloidogyne hapla

2a On stems, rhizomes, leaves and bracts (whorl of leaves on flower peduncle) => 5

2b On flowers and fruits => 3

3a On fruits => 4

3b Flower peduncle shortened. Flower sterile; pod atrophied, remaining on plant. Pulsatilla alpina: Unidentified gall mite

4a Fruit swollen at base, appendage abnormally pubescent, twisted. Containing yellow or reddish larvae. Pulsatilla pratensis, vernalis, vulgaris: Dasineura pulsatillae

4b Ovary or fruit disfigured. Larva yellow. Pulsatilla pratensis: Unidentified gall midge

5a Malformations of aerial parts, already displaying early sori => 15

5b Malformations without fruiting bodies at surface or bulges, rupturing later on and releasing dusting of spores => 6

6a Malformations restricted to less extensive plant parts => 7

6b Flowering or non-flowering plants usually conspicuously disfigured, in all parts ± greatly enlarged. A. nemorosa; also recorded from A. ranunculoides, trifolia: Virus disease

6c Aphids in early spring on the root collar and stem base; later on the leaves and finally on the developing fruits; no host plant alternation. P. vulgaris ssp.grandis, pratensis subsp. nigricans: Aphis pulsatillicola

7a Bulges conspicuous, often strongly arched or curved, soon translucent lead-grey, rupturing later on and releasing black dusting, or fungus sori brown, remaining closed => 14

7b Plant parts with small wart-shaped or ± expanded, pale green spongy or more compact, concave swellings, or leaf blades rolled, folded or bent => 8

8a Swellings wart- or bulge-like => 12

8b Leaf blade rolled, folded or bent => 9

9a Leaf blade ± narrowly rolled upwards => 11

9b Leaf blade folded or bent => 10

10a Tips of bracts folded, shortened. Midrib swollen, reddened. A. nemorosa: Unidentified dipteran

10b Leaf blades ± nest-like clustered downwards, bent. Containing a froth-covered nymph. A. sylvestris, Pulsatilla pratensis and several cultivated species: Philaenus spumarius

11a Single or all leaflets with loose, ±curled, rough upward roll; on younger leaves often including the major part of leaf blade. Rolls ± red coloured, sometimes twisting the leaf blade. Containing several yellow-red larvae. A. sylvestris: Unidentified gall midge

11b Leaf blades rolled upwards, sometimes ± twisted, screw-like. Anemone spp., Hepatica nobilis: Aphelenchoides fragariae

12a Galls expanded, usually ± bulging => 13

12b Small red- to black-violet warts, up to 0.5 mm long, often many and mainly on leaf underside. A. nemorosa, ranunculoides; less abundant on A. coronaria, sylvestris, Anemonoides seemenii, Pulsatilla alpina: Synchytrium anemones

13a Stem- or predominantly lower leaves spongy, swollen basally to varied extent. Surface of often pale green galls ± wrinkled. Parasites inside the galls. A. coronaria, x japonica, Hepatica nobilis: Ditylenchus dipsaci

13b Petiole or partially also rachis with an irregular spindle-shaped swelling, about 15–30 mm long, tough-walled, usually curved, having one or more depressions, containing the initially surface living gall causer. P. pratensis: Planchonia arabidis

14a Leaf blade with ± rotund bladder-like swellings of various size, protruding on upper side, more rarely on underside. Petiole, also stem, with distinctly protruding, sometimes curved, ± spindle-shaped bulges. Patches crust-shaped, initially often yellowish, soon dark-, later on black-brown; not opening. On A. sylvestris and other species. Galls 5, 6 to winter. Anemone sylvestris; Pulsatilla alpina, armena, halleri, montana, patens, pratensis, vernalis, vulgaris: Puccinia pulsatillae species complex

14b Sori conspicuous, lead-grey translucent, rupturing later on and releasing black dusting of spores; on the leaf blades rotund, usually bladder-like arched upwards; on leaf veins, -stalks and stems bulging, often accompanied by stronger curvatures; occasionally even on flower parts and on pale rhizome sections. The forms of this fungus occur on many anemones and belong to the former species complex. Urocystis anemones s.l.

a On A. apennina, nemorosa, ranunculoides and relatives: Urocystis anemones s.str.

b On A. baldensis, coronaria, sylvestris and relatives: Urocystis antipolitana

c On members of Hepatica, such as H. acutiloba, nobilis, transsilvanica: Urocystis syncocca

d On members of Pulsatilla, such as P. alpina, montana, patens, pratensis, vulgaris and relatives: Urocystis pulsatillae

15a Malformations with brown sporulating sori => 19

15b Malformations with lighter aecia and pycnidia => 16

16a Petiole conspicuously elongated, developing early. Leaf blades ± stunted; leaflets narrowed, usually less subdivided, slightly thickened, paler. Aecia scattered on the underside of leaf blade. Sometimes also ± partial but expanded infestation on flowering plants; sori then even on flowering parts. Mycelium perennial => 17

16b Sori on underside of leaves ± rotund, up to about 10 (15) mm broad, elongate-oval on veins and stalks, yellowish, often only slightly thickened. Hepatica nobilis, vulgaris: Puccinia actaeae-agropyri

17a Cups of aecia rupturing, with a few broad lobes => 18

17b On A. nemorosa. Cups whitish; peridium rupturing into many lobes. Copious, initially white, later on brownish spermogonia only on upper side. Membrane of aecia thickened at apical part: Ochropsora ariae

18a On A. ranunculoides. Peridium usually with only a few, 3–5 (6), broad lobes. Spermogonia already initially dark, on both leaf sides. Spore membrane thickened terminally: Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae

18b Aecia analogous; on severely disfigured leaves and shoots, sometimes also flower parts of ornamental anemones, such as A. blanda, coronaria, hortensis: Tranzschelia discolor

19a Mycelium and sori expanded. Diseased organs with longer stems, narrowed => 20

19b Mycelium restricted; sori compact, bulging, rotund on the underside of sometimes curled leaf blades; on distinctly thickened veins or stalks ± elongate spindle-shaped, sometimes coalescing into long ridges. A. altaica, ranunculoides: Puccinia singularis telia

20a Petiole ± elongate; leaf blades variously stunted, simplified, somewhat thickened; plants usually non-flowering. Leaf blades on underside, mainly towards margin with expanded areas of rotund, dusty sori of dark brown telia and black-brown pycnidia. Scattered also on flowering plants. Flowers stunted, disfigured. A. nemorosa, also on A. apennina, blanda, nemorosa, sylvestris, trifolia; Anemonoides seemenii: Tranzschelia anemones

20b Leaves usually longer stalked; leaf blade less expanded, narrower; sori dusting, expanded on leaf underside. P. alpina, halleri incl. subsp. styriaca, montana, patens, pratensis, vernalis, vulgaris: Tranzschelia pulsatilla

Last modified 17.xi.2023