Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Hepatica liverleaf

Hepatica is closely related with Anemone, and many authors considers it as a part of the latter one.

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a larva with obvious feet and head; mine a full depth blotch: Pseudodineura mentiens

1b larva a maggot; mine an upper-surface blotch => 2

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a larvae in winter and early spring: Phytomyza abdominalis

2b larvae in July – October: Phytomyza socia

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 18.v.2019