Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Helleborus niger


organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf leaf spot Leptospaeriaceae Coniothyrium hellebori
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia hellebori
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Barynotus obscurus
leaf vagrant adult Curculionidae Otiorhynchus porcatus
leaf vagrant Aphididae Aulacorthum circumflexum
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Phlogophora meticulosa
leaf leaf spot Botryosphaeriales Phyllosticta helleborella
leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora pulveracea
leaf down Peronosporales Plasmoverna hellebori
leaf leaf spot Entylomatales Entyloma arnaudianum
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza hellebori
leaf oviposition scar Tenthredinidae Monophadnus latus
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia actaeae-elymi
leaf pustule Urocystidales Urocystis floccosa
leaf gall Aphididae Macrosiphum hellebori


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 27.viii.2022