Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Ranunculus buttercup

Incl. Batrachium, Beckwithia, Ficaria.

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a mine full depth; larva with feet and chitinised head => 2

1b mine upper or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 3

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a blotch mine; larva with abdominal and thoracic feet: Pseudodineura fuscula

2b corridor mine; larva without abdominal feet: Orthochaetes insignis

3a mine a very short and narrow corridor that ends upon a thick vein: Phytomyza clematidis

3b mine different => 4

4a mine consists of some corridors that radiate from the leaf base: Phytomyza stolonigena

4b mine entirely within the leaf blade, corridor or blotch => 5

5a puparium in the mine; primary or secondary blotch => 6

5b pupation outside the mine; corridor, sometimes secondary blotch => 8

6a primary blotch, no secondary feeding lines: Phytomyza rydeni

6b secondary blotch, in fresh mines secondary feeding lines visible => 7

7a mine quickly turning dark brown; puparium blackish-brown: Phytomyza fallaciosa

7b mine not quickly browning; puparium yellow: Phytomyza ranunculicola

8a clear corridor => 9

8b corridor so densely wound that a secondary blotch is formed, here and there enclosing small islands of uneaten tissue: Phytomyza buhriana

9a corridor short and broad, starting at a brown spot: Phytomyza notata

9b corridor longer and narrower, never beginning at a brown spot => 10

10a frass grains fine, separated by less than their diameter, often also fusing into pearl strings: Phytomyza ranunculi

10b frass grains coarser, their distance almost everywhere greater than their diameter => 11

11a on Ranunculus lingua; exit slit in upper epidermis: Phytomyza linguae

11b on other Ranunculus-species; exit slit in lower epidermis: Phytomyza ranunculivora

Not included in the key: Cnephasia asseclana, incertana, lineata; Coleophora fretella, rectilineella; Ctenosciara hyalipennis; Liriomyza trifolii, xanthocera; Phytomyza aquilonia, cortusifolii, palionisi; Phytosciara halterata, macrotricha.

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 22.iv.2019