Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

gallers on genus Aquilegia

Dichotomous table for gallers on Aquilegia

by Hans Roskam

1a On above-ground parts => 2

1b Roots with spindle-shaped to lenticular swellings. A. atrata, chrysantha, vulgaris; Meloidogyne hapla

2a On flowers => 7

2b On leaves => 3

3a Malformations caused by animals => 5

3b Malformations caused by fungi => 4

4a Expanded yellow, sometimes violet margined sori on the leaf underside bearing aecia; rotund on leaf blades, oblong-oval on major veins, rachis or stalk. Rust fungi with different host alternation developing similar galls; aecia in May, June:

a Aecia usually on distinctly swollen pads or ± curved bulges. Aquilegia spp.:
Puccinia recondita f. sp. agrostidis

b In similar aecia on A. vulgaris, only slightly cecidogenic: Puccinia actaeae-agropyri

c Usually causing stronger malformations: Puccinia actaeae-elymi

d In similar aecia but differentiated by smaller aeciospores, only known from Aquilegia: Puccinia scarlensis

e Leaflets with swollen blisters which rupture, exposing black powdery spore mass, whole leaf sometimes distorted. A. ottonis subsp. amaliae: Urocystis sorosporioides

4b Leaves or petioles with initially lead-grey translucent, later on rupturing bulges, up to 10 mm long. Containing black dusty spore balls. A. aurea, caerulea, vulgaris: Urocystis aquilegiae

5a Leaf blades arched, curled or curved; caused by aphids or spittlebugs => 6

5b Tips of basal leaves converging. Leaf blade etiolated; margin bent, partially curled to wart-like wrinkled, veins thickened. A. atrata: Unidentified gall mite

6a Parts of leaf blade of younger leaves clustered nest-like, their stalks and rachis shortened and bent. Leaflets curled close to the froth-covered nymph and dark green. Aquilegia spp.: Philaenus spumarius

6b Leaf blade slightly arched, locally often reddened. A. vulgaris: Longicaudus trirhodus

7a Malformations usually confined to single flowers on hardly stunted plants => 8

7b Development of plant often largely stunted, many parts disfigured. Flowers ± distorted; all parts reduced and leafy or, if weakly infected, only the inner parts disfigured. Aquilegia spp.: Cause unknown – ? virus

8a Flowers only slightly stunted and disfigured, not or hardly opened. ± greened. Containing several white to orange- red larvae. A. alpina, vulgaris: Macrolabis aquilegiae

8b Double flowers. A. vulgaris: Inducer unidentified – ? gall mite

Last modified 17.xi.2023