Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Apium

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
root borer Psilidae Psila fimetaria
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Listroderes costirostris
unknown unknown Curculionidae Bagous revelieri
unknown unknown Curculionidae Lixus mucronatus
fruit vagrant Carabidae Carterus fulvipes
leaf vagrant Thripidae Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora apiicola
stem vagrant Unknown code! Aphididae Cavariella salicicola
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Oreina speciosa
leaf film Pythiaceae Globisporangium ultimum
leaf leaf spot Pleosporaceae Alternaria radicina
leaf leaf spot Leptosphaeriaceae Subplenodomus apiicola
leaf pustule Physodermataceae Physoderma vagans
leaf leaf spot Entylomataceae Entyloma helosciadii
leaf leaf spot Hypocreales incertae sedis Acremonium apii
leaf leaf spot Dermateaceae Gloeosporium helosciadii
leaf leaf spot Didymellaceae Ascochyta podagrariae
root film Peronosporaceae Phytophthora cryptogea
root film Ceratocystidaceae Berkeleyomyces basicola
root film Helicobasidiaceae Helicobasidium purpureum
root film Ceratobasidiaceae Rhizoctonia solani
root film Plectosphaerellaceae Verticillium albo-atrum
root film Plectosphaerellaceae Verticillium dahliae
systemic down Sclerotiniaceae Botrytis cinerea
systemic pustule Sclerotiniaceae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Filiella pastinacae
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria petroselini
leaf leaf spot Pleosporales Mycocentrospora acerina
leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Cercospora apii
leaf vagrant Miridae Myrmecophyes variabilis
leaf vagrant Miridae Halticus saltator
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Graphosoma italicum
fruit vagrant Pentatomidae Ancyrosoma leucogrammes
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Tholagmus flavolineatus
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Ctenoplusia accentifera
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Anarta trifolii
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Chrysodeixis chalcites
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Spodoptera exigua
root borer Psilidae Chamaepsila rosae
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Eupteryx atropunctata
leaf vagrant Cicadellidae Euscelidius variegatus
stem gall Curculionidae Lixus iridis
leaf vagrant Tetranychidae Bryobia praetiosa
unknown unknown Curculionidae Lixus mucronatus
leaf vagrant Chrysomelidae Phaedon tumidulus
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera conmaculata
leaf vagrant Curculionidae Hypera conmaculata
leaf hidden Depressariidae Agonopterix yeatiana
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia heraclei
stem borer Elachistidae Depressaria ultimella
root borer larva Curculionidae Calosirus apicalis
stem borer larva Curculionidae Lixus paraplecticus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Myzus persicae
root collar vagrant Aphididae Dysaphis foeniculus
root vagrant Aphididae Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon
systemic borer Anguinidae Ditylenchus dipsaci
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe heraclei
leaf down Peronosporales Plasmopara apii
leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Septoria apiicola
leaf gall Taphrinales Buerenia inundata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza bryoniae
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza strigata
leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii
leaf miner Epermeniidae Epermenia chaerophyllella
leaf miner Tephritidae Euleia heraclei
leaf miner Tephritidae Euleia separata
leaf pustule Blastocladiales Physoderma vagans
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Uromyces lineolatus
leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia apii
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyadaphis foeniculi
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Pemphigus protospirae
stem borer Curculionidae Calosirus terminatus
stem gall Curculionidae Lixus iridis
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis frangulae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Aphis fabae fabae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Cavariella archangelicae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Cavariella aegopodii
leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ascalonicus
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Cavariella konoi
stem vagrant summer generation Aphididae Dysaphis apiifolia


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


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