Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Bupleurum hare’s-ear, thorow-wax

(For a dichotomous table for galls on Bupleurum by Hans Roskam click here)

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a larva with thoracic feet and a recognisable head => 2

1b larva a maggot => 5

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a short (c. 5 mm) corridor without frass: Agonopterix fruticosella

2b corridor much longer, with a clear frass line => 3

3a on Bupleurum gibraltiarum: Glaucolepis megaphallus

3b on B. rigidum & subsp. paniculatum: Glaucolepis chretieni

3c on B. fruticescens & subsp. spinosum: Glaucolepis sanctibenedicti

3d on B. fruticosum => 4

4a mine a narrow gallery until the end; species from Sicilia: Glaucolepis siciliae

4b mine in the end widened into a primary blotch; southern France, Iberia: Glaucolepis bupleurella

5a large blotch mine, sometimes with a short and broad initial corridor; primary and secondary feeding lines conspicuous; larva: rear spiracula with 3 papillae: Euleia heraclei

5b initial corridor much longer; at most primary feeding lines may be visible vaguely; rear spiracula with >3 papillae => 6

6a corridor very long and narrow, hardly widening towards the end; frass in an almost continuous central line: Phytomyza facialis

6b corrridor widening fast and strongly; frass in granules or strings along the corridor sides => 7

7a larvae in April-May; mine starts with a short lower-surface stretch: Phytomyza bupleuri

7b larvae in July and September-October; mine upper-surface throughout: Phytomyza elsae

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 5.v.2020