Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

genus Silaum

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite
leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Zygaena centaureae
leaf vagrant Pentatomidae Graphosoma italicum
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Melanchra persicariae
leaf vagrant Noctuidae Eucarta amethystina
flower hidden Crambidae Sitochroa palealis
flower vagrant Geometridae Eupithecia centaureata
leaf hidden Depressariidae Agonopterix ciliella
flower hidden Elachistidae Depressaria depressana
flower hidden Tortricidae Pammene gallicana
fruit gall Cecidomyiidae Kiefferia pericarpiicola
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Lasioptera carophila
flower gall Cecidomyiidae Macrolabis laserpitii
leaf down Erysiphales Erysiphe heraclei
leaf down Erysiphales Leveillula braunii
leaf down Peronosporales Plasmopara silai
leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Jaapiella dittrichi
leaf miner doubtful Agromyzidae Phytomyza adjuncta
leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza silai
leaf miner Epermeniidae Epermenia chaerophyllella
leaf pustule Blastocladiales Physoderma vagans
leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum
leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Puccinia silai
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Hyadaphis foeniculi
leaf vagrant summer generation rarely Aphididae Dysaphis angelicae
leaf vagrant summer generation Aphididae Cavariella aegopodii


the part of the plant that most conspicuously is hit by the parasite

all buds: both flower buds and leaf buds
flower: also inflorescence
leaf: also needle, phyllodium, petiole
leaf bud: also unfolding young leaf
fruit: also seed
root: also root stock, runners
root collar: also the lowest part of the stem
stem: also culm, the lower part of the peduncle, in grasses also leaf sheath
systemic: the entire above-ground plant.


borer: larva living internally, almost no outwards signs
down: 0.5-2 mm high fungal down
film: very thin cover of fungal tussue
gall: swelling and/or malformation
grazer: feeding at the outside of the plant
leaf spot: discoloured, often ± necrotic, generally not galled, sign of a fungus infection
miner-borer: larve initially makes a mine, lives as a borer later
pustule: plug of fungal tissue, generally brown-black and < 2 mm
stripe: longitudinal line of fungal tissue in a grass leaf
vagrant: (aphids, mites) living freely on the plant, at higher densitiy causing malformations.


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The host plant spectre of a parasite is rarely known exhaustively; this applies in particular at the species level. It is advisable therefore to check at least also the list of all parasites of this genus.


Last modified 13.viii.2023