Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi


Heracleum hogweed, keck, cow parsnip

Dichotomous table for leafminers

1a mine small, full-depth, maybe many together, larva with chitinised head => 2

1b mine > 1 cm, upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5

1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species

2a usually many mines together in a vein axil; larvae whitish; later thet live free, causing extensive window feeding: Epermenia chaerophyllella

2b mines differently arranged; larvae dark grey; later they live among spun leaves => 3

3a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

3b pinacula black => 4

4a larva: behind/below the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

4b anal comb absent: Cnephasia stephensiana

5a long gallery => 6

5b blotch => 8

6a gallery pinnately branched; main and side branches on top of a thick vein and its lateral veins: Liriomyza strigata

6b gallery not determined by the venation of the leaf => 7

7a gallery upper-surface, whitish frass grains close together: Phytomyza spondyllii + Ph. pastinacae

7b gallerey interparenchymatous, yellowish; frass grains few, widely spaced: Phytomyza sphondyliivora

8a blotch interparenchymatous, yellowish green at first, brownish later, perforate; appearance of a fungus infestation => 9

8b blotch upper- or lower-surface => 10

9a larva: frontal appendage present: Phytomyza heracleana

9b frontal appendage absent: Phytomyza sp.

10a at the start of the mine at the underside of the leaf a group of long-oval egg shells: Pegomya vanduzeei

10b no egg shells at the start of the mine => 11

11a in fresh mines primary and secondary feeding lines very conspicuous: Euleia heraclei & Cryptaciura rotundiventris

11b feeding lines inconspicuous: Phytomyza angelicae

See also “Agromyza heraclei

Tables for all parasites per species

Last modified 27.viii.2021